Grammar: Adverbial

作用

状语就是宏观意思的副词
Adverbials often indicate the verb in a sentence.
Here I only discuss the situation when adverbial indicate TIME, PLACE, REASON, RESULT, PURPOSE, CONDITION, DEGREE, PATTERN(方式), CONCESSION, and ACCOMPANY.
Time: The dust particles will soon settle down.
Place: In the box there are a pair of scissors, two pieces of glass, and so on.
Reason: A large amount of energy is wasted in machines due to friction. /     Electricity is most widely used mainly because it is easily transmitted. (mainly 修饰后⾯整个原因状语从句。)
Purpose: The signs and symbols in mathematics are used for convenience.
Condition: Under proper conditions the speed of the machine will be slowed down.  / Carbon unites with oxygen to form CO and CO2.
Degree: Your mobile phone is one centimeter longer than mine. (为什么不是one centimeter?) / Light wave length is only a few millionths of an inch long.  / Your explanation is correct to some extent.
Pattern: The lamp is swinging back and forth.
Concession: In spite of the difficulties, we continued to do our test.
Accompany:  The soldiers dashed forward, machine-gun in hand. /   They were out working already. 
II. 状语表⽰法:
A. 副词及副词性词组作状语:
  1. Light travels most quickly. 光传得最快。
  2. Enterprises of tertiary industries and Hi-tech companies are going up here and there. 第三产业企业和⾼科技公司到处都不断涌现出来。
  3. 《Computers》is difficult, but I like to study it all the more. 《计算机》难,但我仍然喜欢学。
  4. He is quite old; none the less he works like a young man. 他虽然很⽼了,但还像年轻⼈那样⼯作。
B. 名词或名词性词组作状语:
  1. We increased the production of steel last year. 去年我们增加了钢的产量。
  2. Work is done when a force acts on a body and moves it a certain distance. 当⼀个⼒作⽤于物体上并把它移动⼀定距离时,就作了功。
  3. The machine weighs 100 lb. 该机器重100磅。
  4. He reached the station 5 minutes later. 他晚到⻋站五分钟。(句中 5 minutes 说明副词 later。)
  5. The Yangtze River is world famous. ⻓江是世界闻名的。(句中 world 说明形容词 famous。)
C. 介词短语作状语:
  1. This X-ray apparatus has been in operation for two years. 该 X 光机已运⾏两年了。
  2. We should on no account (或 should not on any account) neglect our physical exercises. 我们决不应忽视体育锻炼。
  3. She will in no wise give up study. 她决不放弃学习。
  4. We do everything with the view (或 aim) of serving the people. 我们做⼀切事情,都抱着为⼈⺠服务的⽬的。
  5. With the first appearance of the sun, the birds begin to sing. 太阳⼀出,⻦就开始唱歌。
  6. At the thought of his words, they took courage and fought on. ⼀想到他的话,他们就有了勇⽓,并继续战⽃下去。
  7. He won’t go at all risks. 他不会冒⼀切危险前去。
  8. At all events, you ought not to stay here. ⽆论如何,你不应当留在这⾥。
  9. She is living at No. 305 in the Tianjin Hotel. 她住在天津饭店 305 号房间。
  10. He did it in a certain way. 他⽤某种⽅法办了这件事。
D. 动词不定式作状语(详⻅第 053 ⼆、Ⅶ):
  1. (In order) To calculate the amount of work done, we multiply the force by the distance. 为了计算所作功的数值,我们将⼒乘以距离。(⽬的状语)
  2. CO combines with oxygen to form CO2. ⼀氧化碳和氧化合,便⽣成⼆氧化碳。(结果状语)
  3. It is too manifest to need a word of argument. 太明⽩了,⽆须说话解释。(程度状语)
  4. We are proud to have won first place. 我们因赢得第⼀⽽感到⾃豪。(原因状语)
注:有时甚⾄还⽤“名词+不定式”构成的复合结构作状语。例如:Here is the first volume, the second one to come out next month. 这⾥是第⼀卷,⽽第⼆卷下⽉问世。
E. 过去分词、现在分词短语(包括独⽴分词结构)作状语(详⻅第 37 节、⼀、Ⅵ 和Ⅶ. A. (a),第 54节、⼀Ⅳ、D 和 XIV、A )。
  1. If there is a letter, you read it eagerly, pleased that your friend has thought of you. 假如有⼀封来信,你如饥似渴地读着信,并为你的朋友惦你⽽感到⾼兴。
  2. Starting with very simple equipment, they have produced a great number of transistors. 由简陋的设备起家(原义“着⼿”),他们已⽣产了⼤量晶体管。
  3. a. Seen from an aeroplane, this would look like a great green sea. 从⻜机上看,这像是⼀⼤⽚碧绿的海。
    b. Looking from an aeroplane, you would see a great green sea. 从⻜机上看,你会看到⼀⼤⽚碧绿的海。(从a,b句中可看到句⾸分词和主语有语态关系。)
  4. Electrons being taken away,a body becomes charged. 由于移⾛了电⼦,物体就变为带电了。(独⽴分词结构)
  5. This (being) done, Joe went online. 这事做完后,乔就上⽹了。(同上)
  6. The test (being) over, we went to the computer center. 试验完毕后,我们就去计算机中⼼。(同上)
  7. Supper (being) ready, they came to the table. 晚餐准备好了,他们便向饭桌⾛去。(同上)
  8. The oil having been used up, the car stopped. 油⽤完后,汽⻋就停了下来。(同上)
F. ⽤逗号隔开的形容词短语作状语:
  1. Being fatally ill, the boy was taken to the hospital. 那个男孩因病重被送往医院。
  2. John, fatally ill (=who was fatally ill), sent for a doctor. 约翰因病重派⼈去请医⽣。
  3. The scientists are searching, eager for truth. 科学家们为渴望真理⽽进⾏探索。
从上⾯第1、2句中可看出,这⾥的形容词短语是由前加 being 或由⾮限制性定语从句演变并紧缩⽽成的。现在它已可直接⽤作状语(⻅第 3 句)。
G. 从句作状语:
  1. When we are speaking of power, time is taken into account. 谈到功率时,我们已考虑了时间。(时间状语从句)
  2. There is air all around us although we cannot see it. 我们周围到处有空⽓,虽然我们看不⻅它。(让步状语从句)
  3. We can find out the amount of x because y and z are known quantities. 由于 y 和 z 是已知量,因此我们能求出x值。(原因状语从句)
  4. Seeing that (= Since) the chemical composition of matter remains unchanged, this is not a chemical change.既然物质的化学组成仍保持不变,这就不是化学变化。(原因状语从句)
  5. Once you begin, you must continue. ⼀旦开始,你就得继续下去。(条件状语从句)
  6. It is very difficult to live where there is little water. 在没有多少⽔的地⽅,⽣活是⼗分艰难的。(地点状语从句)
  7. We must strive for further progress in order that we may serve the people better. 我们必须继续求取进步,以便能更好地为⼈⺠服务。(⽬的状语从句)
  8. Just as the kilometer is the unit of length, so the ohm is the practical unit of resistance. 正像公⾥是⻓度的单位那样,欧姆就是电阻的实际单位。(⽅式状语从句)
  9. If we make a gap in the circuit the current will not be able to flow. 如果我们在电路⾥造成间隙,电流就不能流通。(条件状语从句)
  10. Through long power lines, electricity goes where (it is) needed. 电通过很⻓的电线,输送到需要电的地⽅。(地点状语从句)

Introspection : Why I take this site online but local?

Question:

Should I take this site from local to online?

Real reason

1.I can add something every where by phone.

2.I can use Linux and Aliyun, familiar with Linux and Aliyun.

3.I can record it to Government early to prevent not allow record someday.

Fake reason

1.I can use real domain name. If I decide take it from local to online, I haven’t to change the domain name.

I can set the real domain name in local ,prepending to be online…

2.My friend can visit it.

No my friend want to see these articles …especially a English site…

3.I can update and backup the site.

It also can be in local.

 

Harm

none…

Cost

Only ¥300 per year…

Conclusion

Do it!

Grammar : Attribute

作用

定语修饰名词(加代词),定语就是广义的形容词
定语基本都是形容词性,虽然其表现形式可能是多种

分类

前置定语,后置定语(又分为限制性定语和非限制性定语)、双层定语、分段定语

Overview

名词、形容词做定语时,通常在被修饰词的前面
eg. [adjective] He is a new student. He is a tall man. Frozen food. Fallen leaves
eg. [noun] There are a lot of banana trees on the island. There is a swimming pool near our school.
eg. [numeral] Three thousand people watched the game.
eg. [determiner] Many men are working there.
副词、不定式、介词短语做定语,通常后置
    eg. [preposition phrase] The bike in the room is mine.房间里的自行车是我的.

前置定语

our good manager

my father and Mother’s friend

TV shopping

the multi-media application debate

technology intensive economy

three software companies

two tons of coal

a broken window

a dancing girl

a smoking room

a never-increasing number of people

the working people

the operating conditions

the paper-making industry

man-made ice

export-oriented economy

cause a demand for improved service

注 1:现在分词作前置定语的特点是:被修饰的⼈或物能产⽣前⾯ -ing 的动作。例如:
  • the hard-working people 勤劳的⼈⺠,
  • fast moving molecules 快速运动的分⼦等。
动名词作前置定语的特点是:动名词仅表⽰后⾯被修饰的事物的⽤途或跟其有关的动作有关。例如:
  • building materials 建筑(⽤的)材料,
  • cooling water 冷却⽤⽔,
  • the boiling temperature (或point) of water ⽔的沸点。表⽰该温度与“沸腾”或“煮开”动作有关⽽已。
  • 若写 the boiling water,则为(这)正在沸腾的⽔;
  • 若写 the boiled water,就变为“(煮)开过的⽔”。
注 2:不定式短语、形容词短语、定语从句、⽆连字符串起来的介词短语⼀般不作前置定语。
II. 夹带介词短语的名词性词组作前置定语是名词作定语的新发展。参阅第 69 节。
    注:⽐较级形容词短语破例作前置定语:
    CO2 is a heavier than air gas that neither burns nor supports combustion. ⼆氧化碳是⼀种⽐空⽓重的⽓体,它既不燃烧,也不助燃。(若将 heavier than air 放在 gas 后作后置定语,则定语从句的关系代词that 就易被误解为修饰 air)
III. 有多个前置定语时的先后顺序通常如下:
  1. 1. 限定词,如冠词,this,those 等指⽰代词、物主代词等。但要注意冠词有时不占⾸位的⼏种情况(参阅第 1 节、定语(包括定语从句)和⼏个注意点I. 前置定语。
  2. 2. 基数词、序数词;
  3. 3. ⼀般描绘性的形容词,如 good,bad 等;
  4. 4. 表⽰⼤⼩、⾼低、⻓短等形容词,如 big,small,high,tall,low,long,short 等;
  5. 5. 表⽰形状的形容词,如 square,round 等;
  6. 6. 表⽰⽼、中、⻘、新、旧等形容词,如 old,young,new 等;
  7. 7. 表⽰颜⾊的形容词,如 red,white 等;
  8. 8. 表⽰国籍或地区、产地等⽅⾯的形容词,如 Chinese,Japanese 等;
  9. 9. 表⽰物质、材料等⽅⾯的形容词,如 rocky,wooden 等;
  10. 10. 表⽰⽤途、类别⽅⾯的形容词,如 building materials 建筑(⽤的)材料,a writing desk 写字(⽤的)台,aused car ⼀辆旧⻋(即⼀辆使⽤过的或⼆⼿汽⻋)等。
    必须指出,修饰名词的前置定语⼀般不会太多(通常不超过三、四个)如果有⼏个前置定语,⼤致可按上述顺序排列,允许循序跳着使⽤。与汉语⽐较,则和上述第 8 位的英语形容词的⽤法差别较⼤,应予以注意。

后置定语

后置定语、定语从句都可以分为:又分为限制性和非限制性

限制性: 定语和被修饰词非常相关。定语去掉,句子本身意思就不完整了

非限制性:定语和被修饰词几乎是独立的。定语去掉,句子本身意思还是完整的。

eg. 限制性定语:

the impurities difficult to remove

a student operating the computer

the ability to do work 作功的本领

at tend the Internet Symposium held in China 参加在中国举⾏的因特⽹讨论会,

sell state-owned apartments to the residents at prices compatible with their income level 以与⼯资收⼊⽔平相应的价格向居⺠出售共有住房,

something new in her paper

heat used to evaporate the water

firends from home and abroad

relatives overseas

China Today [以上两例为副词作后置定语]

establish a new type of international economic relations featuringmutual benefit, mutual support and common development 建⽴新型的互利、互补、共同发展的国际经济关系,

There is nothing the matter with your wireless pager.

Anyone with a desktop computer and a modem connecting it to a phone line can now find ways into the network.

It was the first Internet club established in Northwest China.

Video conferencing is gradually becoming an accepted means in which to do business.

eg. with Post Restrictive Attribute Clause and Double Layer Attribute:

  • We must write the programs that allow a computer to perform specific functions.
  • The company is making the new products which sell well in the computer retail business.
  • There are hardly any major industries that do not rely to some degree on computer.
  • If pirating persisted, the money (that) people needed to develop new software would simply not be forthcoming. 假如盗版持续下去,⼈们⽤于开发软件所需的资⾦就断了来源。(关系代词 that 还可省略。)
  • Can you introduce to me any one that we know who is as clever as she? (that 引出的定语从句修饰 one,⽽ who 引出的定语从句则说明 anyone that we know 整个内容,故称为双层定语。)
  • When you get a personal E-mail address, you can receive and send messages to people (whom) you know and those (whom) you want to know. 当你获得个⼈的电⼦邮件地址时,你就能收到信息并给你认识的⼈和想认识的⼈发送信息。(两个并列的限制性定语从句)
  • Web broadcasting could change the way (in which) publishers as advertisers look at the Internet. ⽹络⼴播可以改变出版商作为⼴告商时对因特⽹的看法。
  • Air moves from places where the pressure is high to places where the pressure is low.
  • They are the generation who grew up playing computer games and who had an e-mail address by the time they finished their high school. (两个who并列地引出限制性定语从句。句末时间从句仅和第⼆个定语从句有关。)
  • The disk is the medium where (或 on which) information is stored.

eg. 非限制性:

  • We have to master a whole set of rules for how to behave, called netiquette.
  • To climb the pole, cold and wet with snow, was no easy task.
  • At the center of each atom there is nucleus, in which are found mainly protons, possessing a positive electric charge, and neutrons, possessing no charge. 每个原⼦中⼼处有⼀个原⼦核,核内主要发现有带正电的质⼦和不带电的中⼦。(现在分词短语作⾮限制性后置定语。)
  • Our forces, now in control of all the bridgeheads, were ready to take the city. 我们的部队这时已控制了所有的桥头堡,正准备占据城市。(介词短语作⾮限制性后置定语。)
  • The mouse, which was devised to make operating a computer easy, is a small, hand-held unit that, when moved around on a flat pad, moves an arrow to the required position on the screen. ⿏标是为了使电脑操作简便⽽设计的。它是⼀个可⽤⼿握住的⼩装置。当你在平⾯上挪动⿏标时,它能使屏幕上的箭头移动到你所要求的位置。(which was devised…easy 为⾮限制性定语从句。that 引出的定语从句包含⼀个时间状语从句。When 后省略 it is,⽽ it 指 that 所代表的 unit ⽽⾔。)
  • Aluminium combines high tensile strength with lightness of weight, which makes it important in aircraftconstruction. 铝兼有抗拉强度⼤与重量轻的特点,这就使得它在⻜机制造上变得很重要。(which 代替主句整个意思,引出⾮限制性定语从句。)
  • The machine, as might be expected,has stopped operating. 不出所料,机器停⽌了操作。(as 引出⾮限制性定语从句)
  • We will put off the test until next week, when the weather may be better. 我们要将试验延期到下周,那时天⽓也许会更好些。(when引出⾮限制性定语从句。)
  • In 1953 he came to Tianjin, where he has lived ever since. 他是 1953 年来天津的,从那时起他⼀直住在天津。(where 引出⾮限制性定语从句。)
  • I met the boat man, who then took me across the ferry. 我遇⻅了船夫,他把我从渡⼝渡到对岸。(who引出⾮限制性定语从句。)

Noun, Verb, Adjective changing rules

The plural form of nouns 名词复数

1.add -s | 1.清辅音后/s/;2.浊辅音和元音后 /z/; | bags, maps, cars

2.”s, sh, ch, x” add -es |  /iz/ | bus-buses, watch-watches

3.”ce, se, ze, (d)ge” add -s | 读/iz/ | license-licenses

4.”consonant+y” change “y” to “i” and add -es | /z/ | baby-babies

5.Proper nouns or vowel+y add -s | two Marys, the Henrys, monkeys, holidays

6.”o”:
–1.add -s | photos, pianos, radios, zoos, zeros
–2.add -es | potatoes, tomatoes

7.”f, fe”:
–1. add -s | beliefs, roofs, safes, gulfs
–2. change “f, fe” to “ves” | half-halves, knife-knives, leaf-leaves, wolf-wolves, wife-wives, life-lives, thief-thieves, handkerchief-handkerchieves

8.”oo” change to “ee” | foot-feet, tooth-teeth

9.same | deer, sheep, fish

10.special | child-children, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, mouse-mice, man-men, woman-women

名词所有格

加’s, s结尾只加’, 有特例什么都不加但要用of连接

Gerund 动名词

1.add -ing

2.”e” does not pronounce | del “e” add -ing | take-taking, make-making, dance-dancing

3.Stressed Closed Syllables | double last letter and add -ing | cut-cutting, put-putting, begin-beginning

4.”ie” | change “ie” to “y” add -ing | lie-lying, tie-tying, die-dying

Past tense and Past participle 过去式、分词

1. add -ed

2.”e” does not pronounce | add -d | lived moved decided declined hoped judged raised wiped

3.”consonant+y” change “y” to “i” and add -ed | studied tried copied justified cried carried embodied emptied

4.Stressed Closed Syllables | double last letter and add -ed| stopped begged fretted dragged dropped planned dotted dripped

5.special | go-went, make – made get – got buy – bought come – came fly-flew

Third person singular verb动词第三人称单数

1.add -s

2.”s, x, ch, o” add -es;如:guesses, fixes, teach—teaches, brush—brushes, go—goes,do—does,watch—watches,catch—catches

3.”consonant+y” change “y” to “i” and add -es | study-studies, carry-carries, fly-flies, worry-worries

形容词、副词比较级和最高级

第一,规则变化

1. 现在词尾加-er/est.

eg:tall-taller-tallest

warm-warmer-warmest

quiet-quieter-quietest

2. 以字母e结尾的词,在词尾加-r/-st.

eg: late-later-latest

fine-finer-finest

large-larger-largest

close-closer-closest

3. 以辅音字母加-y结尾的双音节词,先把“y”改为“i”,再加-er/-est.

eg: easy-easier-easiest

early-earlier-earliest

funny-funnier-funniest

friendly-friendlier-friendliest

busy-busier-busiest

4. 以只有一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节词,先双写辅音字母再加-er/-est.

eg: big-bigger-biggest

hot-hotter-hottest

wet-wetter-wettest

fat-fatter-fattest

thin-thinner-thinnest

5. 多音节词,在词尾加-more/-most.

eg: beautiful-more beautiful-most beautiful

serious-more serious-most serious

outgoing-more outgoing-most outgoing

6.特殊

little-less-least

 

 

Pronoun

人称代词

我们 你们 他她它们
主pronoun I we you you he she it they
宾pronoun me us you you him her it them
反pronoun myself ourselves yourself yourselves himself herself itself themselves
我的 我们的 你的 你们的 他的 她的 它的 他她它们的
 名determiner my our your your his her its their
 形pronoun mine ours yours yours his hers its theirs

指示代词

this, that, these, those, it, such, same
eg. I’ll have the same.

疑问代词、连接代词

疑问代词都可用作连接代词,引导名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句)
who, whom, whose, what, which, whatever, whichever, whoever, whomever

关系代词

关系代词是用来引导定语从句的代词
which, who, that, which, as 为啥又是关系代词,又是疑问代词?

不定代词

没有明确指定代替任何特定名词或形容词的词叫做不定代词,常用不定代词如下:
all, any, another, both, each, every, either, few, little, many, much, no, none, neither, one, other, some以及由 some, any, no, every 和 body, one, thing 构成的复合词。

相互代词

on other, one another
eg. They love each other

 

替代词

one, ones

 

 

 

句子概述,并列句

并列句不是从句

使用分号;冒号:破折号- 或者是“并列连词”FANBOYS连接的句子,都不是从句,而是并列句。

从句

使用从属连词连接的句子,才是从句

名词性从属连词:that, whether, what, how, when …
形容词性(定语)连词:that, which, who, when, where …
副词性(状语)连词:before, after, although, because …

复合句和复杂句

并列句和主从句都叫复合句

同时包含并列句和主从句的,叫复杂句

 

There are 2 ways to combine two sentences : Punctuation and Conjunction.

1.Punctuation

1.semicolon  [;]

eg. He is a good student; he studies hard every day. I like him. //semicolon connect two related sentence.

2.dash [–] and  colon [:] (press [ALT]+[-_] to type it on Mac) 

eg. He is a good student – he studies hard every day.  I like him. //dash connect two related sentence too.

2.Conjunction

Fist of all : This is wrong : Because he is a good student, so I like him very much.

Conjunction expressed a parallel or logic relationship.

Look at following 3 sentence:

He is a good student, so/and I like him very much.

I like him very much because he is a good student.(In front of because have no comma[,])

Because he is a good student, I like him very much.

He succeeded both because of his intelligence and because of his hard work.

Even though / Though / Although he is nice, (yet) I don’t like him.(yet in here is a adverb, although it’s right, but suggest don’t use it like this.)

and / or / but / not but: connect same things.

eg. He failed because he was lazy and because he was selfish. = He failed because he was lazy and selfish.

eg. Is she kind or stingy/mean?

eg. He is nice, but I don’t like him.

eg. He’s failed not because lazy but selfish.

as well as / rather than

eg. Peter as well as I is fun of music.

eg. Peter rather than I is fun of music. = Peter, not I, is fun of music.

eg. He is ugly rather than handsome. = He is ugly, not handsome.

not… but… / not only… but also… / either… or… / neither… nor…

eg. Not he but I am wrong.

eg. Not only he but also I am wrong.

eg. Either he or you are wrong.

eg. Neither you nor he is wrong.

 

 

The Article and Determiner

Article is a type of determiner.

Article include two types: Indefinite article: a/an and definite article: the

Indefinite article

1.Indefinite article means ‘one’, but ‘one’ emphasize the number, ‘a/an’ emphasize ‘anyone’.

2.Plural(eg. men) can NOT use “a/an”.

3.The following circumstances can NOT use Indefinite article:

1.A word doesn’t have Plural form, such as Substance(eg. water) and Abstract(eg. honest) can NOT too.

2.Name and place can NOT use too.

4.When a/an used as complement:

Whether the complement can use ‘a/an’ depends on the subject.I don’t want to summarize a rule with this situation. I think I can control it by intuition.

eg: Mr. Robert was president of the school. Someone say he is a better president than Mr. White. Mr. Robert is also a member of the Council of the city.

Definite article

1.Definite article means ‘that’ or ‘those’.

2.The+Adjective = Noun. eg. the poor, the older

3.The + Proper nouns(专有名词)  = Unique. eg. the sun

4.This is a most interesting book. 这是⼀本⼗分有趣的书。(Compare:This is the most interesting book I have ever read. 这是我读过的最有趣的⼀本书。)

Determiner

限定通常体现在两方面:指向和数量,且指向和数量至少有一方面需要被限定。

可数名词的单数形式需要被“a/an”限定,专属名词、不可数名词、可数名词复数形式可以不加限定词单独出现,也可以加“the”。

专有名词有的能加the有的不能加,具体靠多用就熟了。

冠词出现在补语位置,通常可以省略,如:The elected Tom (the 省略) chairman.但出现在其他位置,就要加冠词,如:Tom is the chairman.

特殊用法,只能背,没有原因
(1)对于cinema,opera以及theater这几个场所,泛指特指都需要加the
(2)听收音机需要加the而看电视不需要
(3)球类、棋类运动前不加冠词,乐器前需要加the

量词

量词,如strip(名词性),a strip fish 一条鱼,是把不可数名词变成可数的方式。

a seat hill , a flat piece table, a piece of paper, a drop of water