The Article and Determiner

Article is a type of determiner.

Article include two types: Indefinite article: a/an and definite article: the

Indefinite article

1.Indefinite article means ‘one’, but ‘one’ emphasize the number, ‘a/an’ emphasize ‘anyone’.

2.Plural(eg. men) can NOT use “a/an”.

3.The following circumstances can NOT use Indefinite article:

1.A word doesn’t have Plural form, such as Substance(eg. water) and Abstract(eg. honest) can NOT too.

2.Name and place can NOT use too.

4.When a/an used as complement:

Whether the complement can use ‘a/an’ depends on the subject.I don’t want to summarize a rule with this situation. I think I can control it by intuition.

eg: Mr. Robert was president of the school. Someone say he is a better president than Mr. White. Mr. Robert is also a member of the Council of the city.

Definite article

1.Definite article means ‘that’ or ‘those’.

2.The+Adjective = Noun. eg. the poor, the older

3.The + Proper nouns(专有名词)  = Unique. eg. the sun

4.This is a most interesting book. 这是⼀本⼗分有趣的书。(Compare:This is the most interesting book I have ever read. 这是我读过的最有趣的⼀本书。)

Determiner

限定通常体现在两方面:指向和数量,且指向和数量至少有一方面需要被限定。

可数名词的单数形式需要被“a/an”限定,专属名词、不可数名词、可数名词复数形式可以不加限定词单独出现,也可以加“the”。

专有名词有的能加the有的不能加,具体靠多用就熟了。

冠词出现在补语位置,通常可以省略,如:The elected Tom (the 省略) chairman.但出现在其他位置,就要加冠词,如:Tom is the chairman.

特殊用法,只能背,没有原因
(1)对于cinema,opera以及theater这几个场所,泛指特指都需要加the
(2)听收音机需要加the而看电视不需要
(3)球类、棋类运动前不加冠词,乐器前需要加the

量词

量词,如strip(名词性),a strip fish 一条鱼,是把不可数名词变成可数的方式。

a seat hill , a flat piece table, a piece of paper, a drop of water

 

 

 

[Sentence] How a sentence make?

A very basic sentence is composed of a least two parts. One is the SUBJECT, and the other is A VERB.

First,We talk about the SUBJECT

1. SUBJECT must use NOUN. Even can use Pronoun, Infinitive, Gerund or noun clause. But all in all , they are NOUN.

2. When Subject is an Infinitive or An Gerund phrase. The different between Infinitive and Gerund is that Infinitive mean haven’t happen yet and Gerund means already had happened.

3. There is 3 ways to make a Noun clause : That, Whether and Interrogative pronouns 疑问代词

1. Declarative sentence use that.eg:

That he loves me is true.

2. General question 一般疑问句 use whether.(General question is a sentence Only use YES or NO  to answer)eg:

Whether she is beautiful remains to be seen.
Whether she will com remains to be seen.

3. Special interrogative sentences 特殊疑问句 use interrogative pronouns 疑问代词 [except WHY].eg:

Where he will go is a mystery.
What he will do still a question.

4.If the SUBJECT is too long. We can use ‘it’ instead, and then put the long part into the end of the sentence.eg:

It makes me angry that he didn’t agree with me.
It remains to be seen whether she is beautiful.
It is a mystery where he will go.

5. What is the noun parse 名词短语?  All noun parse are simplyfy from a interrogative sentence. eg:

where to go.
what to do.

6. Some preposition phrase can also be used as SUBJECT.eg:

From Beijing to Guangzhou is a long distance.
From 1990 till 2010 is a long period time.

Second, We talk about VERB

1. The SUBJECT MUST be followed by VERB.

2. The Verb comes in 5 kinds: Complete Intransitive, Incomplete Intransitive, Complete Transitive, Incomplete Transitive and Dative 完全/不完全 及物/不及物 与格

Attention: Some Verb has many meanings, some meanings are VI, but some are VT.

3. How to judge a word is Transitive or Intransitive?

I ___ it.  +  It 被 I ___ .
I love it. It 被 I love. OK
He happey an accident. An accident 被 I happen. 后半句不OK
I run It. It 被 I run. 前后两句都不OK.
I run marathon. Marathon 被 I run. 前后都通。
I run(经营) a company. A company 被 I run.

4. There are 5 kinds of basic sentence: SV, SVC, SVO, SVOC, SVOO.Each sentence corresponds to each verb.

S:Subject, V:Verb, O:Object, C:Complement, B:Be, G:Gerund, P: Past Participle, I:Infinitive

SV -> Complete Intransitive

SVC -> Incomplete Intransitive 主系表(C在这里叫做表语,其实本质还是补语)

SVO -> Complete Transitive

SVOC -> InComplete Transitive 主谓宾补(C是补语)

SVOO -> Dative

    完全不及物:后面什么都不跟
完全及物:后面跟个”物”
不完全不及物:此类动词基本都是“系动词”。后面跟表语(本质是补语)
不完全及物:后面跟2个,一个是因为不完全要跟补语,另一个是因为及物要跟物

5. SV / SBG : eg.

He danced.

He was dancing.

He fainted.

I know.

He fainted when he heard the bad news.

6.SVC: Most of the time, C is an adjective or noun. eg.

V not only ‘am/is/are’, also can be :

look 看起来是
sound 听起来是
smell
taste
feel 摸起来是
seen 似乎是
appear 显得是
turn 转变为
prove 证实为
become 成为
make 做为

I become a doctor.

I became knowledgeable.

She became beautiful.

He is a doctor.

He is handsome.

He is happy.

I look/sound/smell/taste/fell sad.

7.SVO主谓宾 / SBGO(主谓宾的进行时) / SBP(被动语态):  eg.

I love her.

I am loving her.

She is loved.

I want/plan to see him.

I enjoy dancing.

8.SVOC :

Common verbs in SVOC have : call, have, let, make, cause

as call:(VERB must use prototype)

I have him wash the car

as let:(VERB must use prototype)

I’ll let him sing a song

as force:

I’ll push him .

That story cause me cry.

I make him happy.

9.SVOO:

Dative verb: give, ask, buy, rob, expect, require, demand, lend, teach,

eg:

SVO (to/for/of/from) O

I gave him a car.

I ask him a question.

I gave a car to him.

I buy a car for him.

I asked him a question.

I asked a question of him.

He robbed me of my money. That’s wrong:He robbed my money of me.

10.How to distinguish Incomplete VI and Complete VT?

Incomplete VI can add an adjective, Complete VT can’t.

Third summary

When I see a Be, What is it mean?

1.It may SVC. I am man. You are Tom. He is handsome.

2.It may continuous tense. I am singing. He was dancing. You will be going to school tomorrow.

3.It may Passive Voice. She is loved. She is loved by him.

 

Coverage of English Grammar

词性和句子成分

[Article 冠 Determiner 限定词 + Noun 名 / Pronoun 代 ] | Verb | Adjective | Adverb
Preposition 介 | Conjunction 连 | Interjection(Exclamation) | Numeral

Subject + Predicate 谓 / Link Verb 系 + Object 宾 + Complement 补 / Predicative 表
Attribute定 | Adverbial状 | Synonyms同位语

Non – Predicate Verb 非谓语动词  | 情态动词 | 系动词

Noun, verb, adjective and adverb change rules 名词、动词、形容词和副词的变化规则

时态和语态

Tense 时态 | Passive Voice 被动语态

句子

Sentence : Single Sentence(Sentence Components 句子成分) -> Complex Sentence(Clause 从句) -> Inversion Sentence 倒装句 -> Not sentence, Just Phrase短语

从句概述 | 名词性从句 主从/宾从/表从 | 形容性从句 定从 | 副词性从句 状从

Other Sentence: Imperative sentence 祈使句 | Exclamatory sentence 感叹句 | Question 问句

Subjunctive mood 虚拟语气 | Emphatic mood 强调语气