Grammar : 非谓语动词







动词不定式的to属于小品词,不属于任何词类。参考《牛津高阶词典》to 2。若句子中的to是介词,则动词要用动名词ing形式

I am glad to meet you.  = I am glad that I could meet you.









Grammar : Preposition



理论上,介词后面都应该接名词。但随着语言的发展,很多介词具有了不接名词的副词性用法。eg. She climbed up. 这里的up修饰动词climbed。这里不要较真,把当做副词的介词,还看成介词就好。


表时间点:at, on, in


表时间其他概念:表示其他时间概念的介词有before,after,since,until,till,between,up to

表方位:at ,in, on, to,for,above, over,below, under,in front of, in the front of,beside,behind beside








Grammar: The difference between Adverbial and Complement

Push the door open.

‘open’ is complement. It description the OBJECT(door).

Push the door hard.

‘hard’ is adverbial. It description the Verb(push)

In most situation, not all situation:

Complement only have relationship with Noun.Adverb only have relationship with Verb.


I played football happy.

‘happy’ is complement.

I played football happily.

‘happily’ is adverbial.

I played football yesterday. / I played football on the square.

‘yesterday and on the square’ art adverbial.



Grammar: Appositive

  1. Unlike oxygen, the element nitrogen is not active. 与氧不同,元素氮不活泼。(unlike 为介词。)
  2. In today’s China, we returned students are able to do what we could not do before. 在今⽇的中国我们归国留学⽣能做过去不能做的事情。
  3. Thanks to the help of the experts they each all obtained great success. 多亏专家的帮助,他们各位都取得了很⼤的成功。(thanks to 为复合介词。)
  4. They are all familiar with TV home shopping. 他们都熟悉在家进⾏电视购物。(谓语是 be 时,all 挪后。)
  1. Yesterday they each saw Dr.Fang, a senior engineer. 昨天他们各位都⻅到了⽅博⼠,他是⼀位⾼级⼯程师。
  2. The simplest atom, the hydrogen atom, contains one proton and one electron. 最简单的原⼦氢含有⼀个质⼦和⼀个电⼦。
  3. Henry is there, near the window. 亨利在那边,在窗⼾附近。
  4. The heat liberated during chemisorption is usually large, of order of the heat of chemical reaction. 化学吸附中放出的热量通常很⼤,与化学反应热不相上下。
  5. They make different types of computers, each with its characteristics. 他们制造各种型式的计算机,每种各有其⾃⼰的特点。
  6. Agnes will visit two cities: Beijing and Shanghai. 阿格尼丝将访问两个城市:北京和上海。
  7. We all have a common desire – to realize the four modernizations in China. 我们都有⼀个共同的愿望——在中国实现四个现代化。(注意不定式短语作同位语。)
    三、⽤ or 引出同位语
  1. The boiling temperature, or boiling point, is the temperature at which a liquid boils under ordinary pressure. 沸腾温度即沸点,系液体在常压下沸腾的温度。
  2. Under certain conditions this compound splits up, or decomposes, into two substances. 在⼀定条件下,该化合物就裂解即分解为两种物质。
  3. This weight equals one kilogram or 2.2046 pounds. 这个重量等于⼀公⽄即 2.2046 磅。
  4. The energy of electric current, or of electricity in motion, may be converted to any other form of energy. 电流的能量即动电的能量,可以转化为任何其它种能量。
    四、⽤ such as 或 as 引出同位语
  1. Some solid fuels, such as wood and coal, are chiefly composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 某些固体燃料,例如⽊头和煤,主要是由碳、氢和氧构成的。
  2. Some building materials such as cement and reinforcing bars are widely used in capital construction. 某些建筑材料,例如⽔泥和钢筋,⼴泛使⽤于基本建设中。
  3. Part of your job as a teacher is to really understand your pupils’ personal problems. 真正地了解你所教的学⽣的个⼈问题是你教师⼯作的⼀部分。(表⽰什么职业的⼯作引出同位语时,as前不要加such。)
  4. Plastics as a class are not suitable as materials to carry heavy structural loads. 塑料作为⼀类材料,并不适于作承受重型结构负荷的材料。(第⼀个 as 引出同位语,⽽第⼆个 as 则引出主语补语。)
    五、⽤ of 引出同位语,这时 of 前常是⼀个概括的名称,of 后是具体的东西或具体数值
  1. This automobile is running at a speed of 70 miles an hour. 该汽⻋正以每⼩时 70 英⾥的速度⾏驶。
  2. This liquid has a temperature of about 80℃. 该液体的温度为 80℃ 左右。(未按原⽂结构翻译)
  3. He worked in the city of Tianjin two years ago. 两年前他在天津市⼯作。
  4. Before Agnes there is a question of what to do first. 在阿格尼丝⾯前有⼀个先做什么的问题。
    六、⽤ namely, for example, including, particularly, that is (或i.e.) 等引出同位语
  1. There are two kinds of charges, namely, positive and negative (charges). 电荷有两种,即正电荷和负电荷。
  2. We have only one way of solving the difficulty, namely, to rely on our own efforts. 我们只有⼀条解决困难的途径,即依靠⾃⼰的努⼒。
  3. In China there are many cities, for example, Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin. 中国有许多城市,例如北京、上海和天津。
  4. Many of us, including Lin Hua, have been to Beijing zoo. 我们中间有许多⼈,包括林华在内,都去过北京动物园。
  5. I want to visit these modern factories, especially the one where you work. 我想参观这些现代化的⼯⼚,特别是你⼯作所在的那个⼚。
  6. Weight is directly related to the mass of a body, that is (或 i.e.), to the amount of matter in it. 重量是和物体的质量即物体内的物质数量直接有关的。
    七、⽤连词 that 等引出从句作同位语,称为同位语从句。有时省略that,造成难点
  1. This experiment leads to the conclusion that unlike charges attract each other. 这个实验导致这样⼀个结论:异性电荷相吸。
  2. The question “what are things made of?” is answered differently by different kinds of scientists. 物质由什么构成的问题,不同的科学家就有不同的答案。
  3. The modern approach to nature is to ask the more modest question, how things move, and to seek the answerin experiment. 现代对⾃然研究的⽅法是提出“物体是怎样运动的”这样⼀个⽐较恰如其分的问题,然后通过实验探索其答案。
  4. Then arose the question whom we should trust in. 那时就产⽣了我们应该相信谁的问题。
  5. There can be no doubt that man is certain to turn to the laboratories if nature does not provide stationarymaterials. 毫⽆疑问,如果⾃然界不能提供稳定的材料,⼈类⼀定会转向实验室。
  6. The fact that metals can be drawn into wires is known to us. ⾦属可以拔丝这⼀事实是我们都知道的。
  7. The thought came to him that the process should be conducted out of contact with the air. 他突然想起,该过程应该在不接触空⽓的情况下进⾏。
  8. Lisa told us the news, namely that the new shop would be open on and after next Sunday. 莉萨告诉我们⼀条消息,即这家新商店将从下星期⽇起开始营业。(注意同位语从句前加 namely.)
  9. Let me know your college address, that is, where you live in term time. 让我们知道你所在的学校地址,即你上学时所住的地⽅。(注意同位语从句前加插⼊句 that is。)
  10. Whenever the teacher mentioned my spelling mistakes in class, I had a feeling he was getting at me. 每当⽼师在课堂上提起我的拼写错误,我就有⼀种他在找我岔的感觉。(feeling 后省略了 that。)

Gramma : Complement




这类常⽤的及物动词有:make (使),consider (认为),cause (引起、使得),see (看⻅),find (发现),call (称为、叫做),get (让、使得),have(让、使得)let(开始、使…开始)等。
  1. eg
    1. Electricity can make a machine run. 电能使机器运转。
    2. We consider (或 think) the answer (to be) correct. 我们认为这个答案是正确的。
    3. Changes in temperature and pressure often cause matter to changes from one state to another. 温度和压⼒的变化,常引起物质从⼀种状态变为另⼀种状态。
    4. It is the reform and opening-up policy that is making China a powerful country. 就是这个改⾰开放政策正使中国变为⼀个强国。?这句没明白?
    5. I found the empty oil tank. 我发现这个空油箱。(定语)
    6. I found the oil tank empty. 我发现这个油箱是空的。(宾语补语)
带有宾语补语的⼀般句型为:某些及物动词(如 make等)+ 直接宾语(名词或代词)+ 宾语补语



  1. ⽤名词及其短语表⽰ eg.
    1. This process is called evaporation. 这种过程叫做蒸发。
    2. ⽐较:We call this process evaporation. 我们把这种过程称之为蒸发。(evaporation 为宾语补语)
    3. Evaporation is considered a physical process. 蒸发被认为是⼀种物理过程。
    4. He was elected monitor in our class. 他在我班被选为班⻓。
    5. This law is named(或 termed)Ohm’s law. 这个定律称为欧姆定律。
    6. He died a poor man.他死时很穷。(不是被动语态吧)
    7. He died a millionaire.他死的时候是个百万富翁
  2. ⽤形容词及其短语表⽰
    1. Computers are considered very important to us. 计算机被认为对我们⾄关重要。
    2. ⽐较:People considercomputers very important to us. ⼈们认为计算机对我们⾄关重要。(宾语补语)
    3. The medicine must be kept dry. 这药品必须保持⼲燥。
    4. It has been made clear when the video conference will be held. 已明确宣布何时举⾏电视会议。(句中 when 引出主语从句,⽽前⾯ it 为形式主语。)
    5. He came in drunk.他走进来的时候醉醺醺的.
    6. They married young.他们结婚时还年轻.(不是被动语态吧)
    7. He died happy.他怀着幸福的0死去.(不是被动语态吧)
    8. No man is born wise.没有生而知之.(不是被动语态吧)
    III. ⽤动词不定式及其短语表⽰主语补语时,不定式动词前⾯都带 to。
  1. Oil is known to be in the liquid state. ⼤家知道油处于液态。(未按原⽂结构翻译)⽐较:We know oil to be in the liquid state. 我们知道油处于液态。(宾语补语)
  2. a. James was seen to buy the game software for his son. 有⼈看⻅詹姆⼠为他⼉⼦买了游戏软件。(未按原⽂结构翻译)
  3. b. Efforts were made by Linda to develop software. 琳达为开发软件作出了努⼒。(本句内不定式短语却表⽰⽬的状语。为此必须注意上下⽂。)
    Ⅳ. ⽤现在分词及其短语表⽰
  1. They were seen playing video games. 曾有⼈⻅到他们在玩电⼦游戏。(未按原⽂结构翻译)
  2. ⽐较:We saw them playing video games. 我们曾⻅到他们在玩电⼦游戏。(宾语补语)
  3. The boy was found sleeping on the ground this morning. 今天早晨有⼈发现这男孩睡在地上。(意译)
    V. ⽤过去分词及其短语表⽰
  1. Sulfur is found combined with many metals. 硫被发现同许多⾦属化合在⼀起。(主语补语)
  2. ⽐较:We find sulfur combined with many metals. 我们发现硫同许多⾦属化合在⼀起. (宾语补语)
  3. The information industries are found well developed in our country. ⼈们发现信息产业在我国得到很好发展。
    Ⅵ. ⽤ as 引出主语补语
  1. This maybe taken as (being) a result of the revolution in computer hardware. 这可以当作是计算机硬件⾰新的⼀种结果。
  2. ⽐较:We may take this as a result of the revolution in computer hardware. 我们可以把这当作计算机硬件⾰新的⼀种结果。(宾语补语)
  3. This law is known as (或 is referred to as) the law of the sea. 这个法律通称为海洋法。
  4. Electric current may be looked on as (或 seen as 或 regarded as) being a flow of electrons through a medium.电流可以被视为电⼦在介质中的流动。(句中 being 可省略. )
  5. Water can be shown as containing impurities. 可以证明⽔含有杂质。(原义:⽔是可以被证明含有杂质的。)
  6. An atom may be thought of as made up of nucleus and electrons. 原⼦可以被认为是由原⼦核和电⼦所组成的。
    Ⅶ. ⽤介词短语表⽰
  1. Petroleum is considered of much use for our chemical industry. ⽯油被认为对我们的化学⼯业⼤有⽤处。
  2. Your medicine must be kept in the original. 你的药必须保持原状。
  3. One layer of liquid was found past another. 发现有⼀层液体超越另⼀层液体。

表语 Predicative

一. 名词作表语
    Africa is a big continent.非洲是个大洲.
    That remains a puzzle to me.这对我还是个难题.
二. 代词作表语
    What’s your fax number?    你的传真号是多少?
三. 形容词作表语
    I feel much better today. 我今天感觉好多了.
    TV home shopping is popular here this year.
四. 数词作表语
    She was the first to learn about it.她是第一个知道的人.
五. 不定式或ing形式作表语
    Her job is selling computers.她的工作是销售电脑.
    Our next step was to get raw materials ready.我们下一步是把原料准备好.
六. 介词短语作表语
    The patient is out of danger.病人脱险了.
    I don’t feel at ease.我感到不自在.
七. 副词作表语
    The sun is up.太阳升起来了.
    I must be off now.现在我得走了.
八. 从句作表语
    This is what he said.这就是他所说的话.

Grammar: Adverbial


Adverbials often indicate the verb in a sentence.
Here I only discuss the situation when adverbial indicate TIME, PLACE, REASON, RESULT, PURPOSE, CONDITION, DEGREE, PATTERN(方式), CONCESSION, and ACCOMPANY.
Time: The dust particles will soon settle down.
Place: In the box there are a pair of scissors, two pieces of glass, and so on.
Reason: A large amount of energy is wasted in machines due to friction. /     Electricity is most widely used mainly because it is easily transmitted. (mainly 修饰后⾯整个原因状语从句。)
Purpose: The signs and symbols in mathematics are used for convenience.
Condition: Under proper conditions the speed of the machine will be slowed down.  / Carbon unites with oxygen to form CO and CO2.
Degree: Your mobile phone is one centimeter longer than mine. (为什么不是one centimeter?) / Light wave length is only a few millionths of an inch long.  / Your explanation is correct to some extent.
Pattern: The lamp is swinging back and forth.
Concession: In spite of the difficulties, we continued to do our test.
Accompany:  The soldiers dashed forward, machine-gun in hand. /   They were out working already. 
II. 状语表⽰法:
A. 副词及副词性词组作状语:
  1. Light travels most quickly. 光传得最快。
  2. Enterprises of tertiary industries and Hi-tech companies are going up here and there. 第三产业企业和⾼科技公司到处都不断涌现出来。
  3. 《Computers》is difficult, but I like to study it all the more. 《计算机》难,但我仍然喜欢学。
  4. He is quite old; none the less he works like a young man. 他虽然很⽼了,但还像年轻⼈那样⼯作。
B. 名词或名词性词组作状语:
  1. We increased the production of steel last year. 去年我们增加了钢的产量。
  2. Work is done when a force acts on a body and moves it a certain distance. 当⼀个⼒作⽤于物体上并把它移动⼀定距离时,就作了功。
  3. The machine weighs 100 lb. 该机器重100磅。
  4. He reached the station 5 minutes later. 他晚到⻋站五分钟。(句中 5 minutes 说明副词 later。)
  5. The Yangtze River is world famous. ⻓江是世界闻名的。(句中 world 说明形容词 famous。)
C. 介词短语作状语:
  1. This X-ray apparatus has been in operation for two years. 该 X 光机已运⾏两年了。
  2. We should on no account (或 should not on any account) neglect our physical exercises. 我们决不应忽视体育锻炼。
  3. She will in no wise give up study. 她决不放弃学习。
  4. We do everything with the view (或 aim) of serving the people. 我们做⼀切事情,都抱着为⼈⺠服务的⽬的。
  5. With the first appearance of the sun, the birds begin to sing. 太阳⼀出,⻦就开始唱歌。
  6. At the thought of his words, they took courage and fought on. ⼀想到他的话,他们就有了勇⽓,并继续战⽃下去。
  7. He won’t go at all risks. 他不会冒⼀切危险前去。
  8. At all events, you ought not to stay here. ⽆论如何,你不应当留在这⾥。
  9. She is living at No. 305 in the Tianjin Hotel. 她住在天津饭店 305 号房间。
  10. He did it in a certain way. 他⽤某种⽅法办了这件事。
D. 动词不定式作状语(详⻅第 053 ⼆、Ⅶ):
  1. (In order) To calculate the amount of work done, we multiply the force by the distance. 为了计算所作功的数值,我们将⼒乘以距离。(⽬的状语)
  2. CO combines with oxygen to form CO2. ⼀氧化碳和氧化合,便⽣成⼆氧化碳。(结果状语)
  3. It is too manifest to need a word of argument. 太明⽩了,⽆须说话解释。(程度状语)
  4. We are proud to have won first place. 我们因赢得第⼀⽽感到⾃豪。(原因状语)
注:有时甚⾄还⽤“名词+不定式”构成的复合结构作状语。例如:Here is the first volume, the second one to come out next month. 这⾥是第⼀卷,⽽第⼆卷下⽉问世。
E. 过去分词、现在分词短语(包括独⽴分词结构)作状语(详⻅第 37 节、⼀、Ⅵ 和Ⅶ. A. (a),第 54节、⼀Ⅳ、D 和 XIV、A )。
  1. If there is a letter, you read it eagerly, pleased that your friend has thought of you. 假如有⼀封来信,你如饥似渴地读着信,并为你的朋友惦你⽽感到⾼兴。
  2. Starting with very simple equipment, they have produced a great number of transistors. 由简陋的设备起家(原义“着⼿”),他们已⽣产了⼤量晶体管。
  3. a. Seen from an aeroplane, this would look like a great green sea. 从⻜机上看,这像是⼀⼤⽚碧绿的海。
    b. Looking from an aeroplane, you would see a great green sea. 从⻜机上看,你会看到⼀⼤⽚碧绿的海。(从a,b句中可看到句⾸分词和主语有语态关系。)
  4. Electrons being taken away,a body becomes charged. 由于移⾛了电⼦,物体就变为带电了。(独⽴分词结构)
  5. This (being) done, Joe went online. 这事做完后,乔就上⽹了。(同上)
  6. The test (being) over, we went to the computer center. 试验完毕后,我们就去计算机中⼼。(同上)
  7. Supper (being) ready, they came to the table. 晚餐准备好了,他们便向饭桌⾛去。(同上)
  8. The oil having been used up, the car stopped. 油⽤完后,汽⻋就停了下来。(同上)
F. ⽤逗号隔开的形容词短语作状语:
  1. Being fatally ill, the boy was taken to the hospital. 那个男孩因病重被送往医院。
  2. John, fatally ill (=who was fatally ill), sent for a doctor. 约翰因病重派⼈去请医⽣。
  3. The scientists are searching, eager for truth. 科学家们为渴望真理⽽进⾏探索。
从上⾯第1、2句中可看出,这⾥的形容词短语是由前加 being 或由⾮限制性定语从句演变并紧缩⽽成的。现在它已可直接⽤作状语(⻅第 3 句)。
G. 从句作状语:
  1. When we are speaking of power, time is taken into account. 谈到功率时,我们已考虑了时间。(时间状语从句)
  2. There is air all around us although we cannot see it. 我们周围到处有空⽓,虽然我们看不⻅它。(让步状语从句)
  3. We can find out the amount of x because y and z are known quantities. 由于 y 和 z 是已知量,因此我们能求出x值。(原因状语从句)
  4. Seeing that (= Since) the chemical composition of matter remains unchanged, this is not a chemical change.既然物质的化学组成仍保持不变,这就不是化学变化。(原因状语从句)
  5. Once you begin, you must continue. ⼀旦开始,你就得继续下去。(条件状语从句)
  6. It is very difficult to live where there is little water. 在没有多少⽔的地⽅,⽣活是⼗分艰难的。(地点状语从句)
  7. We must strive for further progress in order that we may serve the people better. 我们必须继续求取进步,以便能更好地为⼈⺠服务。(⽬的状语从句)
  8. Just as the kilometer is the unit of length, so the ohm is the practical unit of resistance. 正像公⾥是⻓度的单位那样,欧姆就是电阻的实际单位。(⽅式状语从句)
  9. If we make a gap in the circuit the current will not be able to flow. 如果我们在电路⾥造成间隙,电流就不能流通。(条件状语从句)
  10. Through long power lines, electricity goes where (it is) needed. 电通过很⻓的电线,输送到需要电的地⽅。(地点状语从句)

Grammar : Attribute






eg. [adjective] He is a new student. He is a tall man. Frozen food. Fallen leaves
eg. [noun] There are a lot of banana trees on the island. There is a swimming pool near our school.
eg. [numeral] Three thousand people watched the game.
eg. [determiner] Many men are working there.
    eg. [preposition phrase] The bike in the room is mine.房间里的自行车是我的.


our good manager

my father and Mother’s friend

TV shopping

the multi-media application debate

technology intensive economy

three software companies

two tons of coal

a broken window

a dancing girl

a smoking room

a never-increasing number of people

the working people

the operating conditions

the paper-making industry

man-made ice

export-oriented economy

cause a demand for improved service

注 1:现在分词作前置定语的特点是:被修饰的⼈或物能产⽣前⾯ -ing 的动作。例如:
  • the hard-working people 勤劳的⼈⺠,
  • fast moving molecules 快速运动的分⼦等。
  • building materials 建筑(⽤的)材料,
  • cooling water 冷却⽤⽔,
  • the boiling temperature (或point) of water ⽔的沸点。表⽰该温度与“沸腾”或“煮开”动作有关⽽已。
  • 若写 the boiling water,则为(这)正在沸腾的⽔;
  • 若写 the boiled water,就变为“(煮)开过的⽔”。
注 2:不定式短语、形容词短语、定语从句、⽆连字符串起来的介词短语⼀般不作前置定语。
II. 夹带介词短语的名词性词组作前置定语是名词作定语的新发展。参阅第 69 节。
    CO2 is a heavier than air gas that neither burns nor supports combustion. ⼆氧化碳是⼀种⽐空⽓重的⽓体,它既不燃烧,也不助燃。(若将 heavier than air 放在 gas 后作后置定语,则定语从句的关系代词that 就易被误解为修饰 air)
III. 有多个前置定语时的先后顺序通常如下:
  1. 1. 限定词,如冠词,this,those 等指⽰代词、物主代词等。但要注意冠词有时不占⾸位的⼏种情况(参阅第 1 节、定语(包括定语从句)和⼏个注意点I. 前置定语。
  2. 2. 基数词、序数词;
  3. 3. ⼀般描绘性的形容词,如 good,bad 等;
  4. 4. 表⽰⼤⼩、⾼低、⻓短等形容词,如 big,small,high,tall,low,long,short 等;
  5. 5. 表⽰形状的形容词,如 square,round 等;
  6. 6. 表⽰⽼、中、⻘、新、旧等形容词,如 old,young,new 等;
  7. 7. 表⽰颜⾊的形容词,如 red,white 等;
  8. 8. 表⽰国籍或地区、产地等⽅⾯的形容词,如 Chinese,Japanese 等;
  9. 9. 表⽰物质、材料等⽅⾯的形容词,如 rocky,wooden 等;
  10. 10. 表⽰⽤途、类别⽅⾯的形容词,如 building materials 建筑(⽤的)材料,a writing desk 写字(⽤的)台,aused car ⼀辆旧⻋(即⼀辆使⽤过的或⼆⼿汽⻋)等。
    必须指出,修饰名词的前置定语⼀般不会太多(通常不超过三、四个)如果有⼏个前置定语,⼤致可按上述顺序排列,允许循序跳着使⽤。与汉语⽐较,则和上述第 8 位的英语形容词的⽤法差别较⼤,应予以注意。



限制性: 定语和被修饰词非常相关。定语去掉,句子本身意思就不完整了


eg. 限制性定语:

the impurities difficult to remove

a student operating the computer

the ability to do work 作功的本领

at tend the Internet Symposium held in China 参加在中国举⾏的因特⽹讨论会,

sell state-owned apartments to the residents at prices compatible with their income level 以与⼯资收⼊⽔平相应的价格向居⺠出售共有住房,

something new in her paper

heat used to evaporate the water

firends from home and abroad

relatives overseas

China Today [以上两例为副词作后置定语]

establish a new type of international economic relations featuringmutual benefit, mutual support and common development 建⽴新型的互利、互补、共同发展的国际经济关系,

There is nothing the matter with your wireless pager.

Anyone with a desktop computer and a modem connecting it to a phone line can now find ways into the network.

It was the first Internet club established in Northwest China.

Video conferencing is gradually becoming an accepted means in which to do business.

eg. with Post Restrictive Attribute Clause and Double Layer Attribute:

  • We must write the programs that allow a computer to perform specific functions.
  • The company is making the new products which sell well in the computer retail business.
  • There are hardly any major industries that do not rely to some degree on computer.
  • If pirating persisted, the money (that) people needed to develop new software would simply not be forthcoming. 假如盗版持续下去,⼈们⽤于开发软件所需的资⾦就断了来源。(关系代词 that 还可省略。)
  • Can you introduce to me any one that we know who is as clever as she? (that 引出的定语从句修饰 one,⽽ who 引出的定语从句则说明 anyone that we know 整个内容,故称为双层定语。)
  • When you get a personal E-mail address, you can receive and send messages to people (whom) you know and those (whom) you want to know. 当你获得个⼈的电⼦邮件地址时,你就能收到信息并给你认识的⼈和想认识的⼈发送信息。(两个并列的限制性定语从句)
  • Web broadcasting could change the way (in which) publishers as advertisers look at the Internet. ⽹络⼴播可以改变出版商作为⼴告商时对因特⽹的看法。
  • Air moves from places where the pressure is high to places where the pressure is low.
  • They are the generation who grew up playing computer games and who had an e-mail address by the time they finished their high school. (两个who并列地引出限制性定语从句。句末时间从句仅和第⼆个定语从句有关。)
  • The disk is the medium where (或 on which) information is stored.

eg. 非限制性:

  • We have to master a whole set of rules for how to behave, called netiquette.
  • To climb the pole, cold and wet with snow, was no easy task.
  • At the center of each atom there is nucleus, in which are found mainly protons, possessing a positive electric charge, and neutrons, possessing no charge. 每个原⼦中⼼处有⼀个原⼦核,核内主要发现有带正电的质⼦和不带电的中⼦。(现在分词短语作⾮限制性后置定语。)
  • Our forces, now in control of all the bridgeheads, were ready to take the city. 我们的部队这时已控制了所有的桥头堡,正准备占据城市。(介词短语作⾮限制性后置定语。)
  • The mouse, which was devised to make operating a computer easy, is a small, hand-held unit that, when moved around on a flat pad, moves an arrow to the required position on the screen. ⿏标是为了使电脑操作简便⽽设计的。它是⼀个可⽤⼿握住的⼩装置。当你在平⾯上挪动⿏标时,它能使屏幕上的箭头移动到你所要求的位置。(which was devised…easy 为⾮限制性定语从句。that 引出的定语从句包含⼀个时间状语从句。When 后省略 it is,⽽ it 指 that 所代表的 unit ⽽⾔。)
  • Aluminium combines high tensile strength with lightness of weight, which makes it important in aircraftconstruction. 铝兼有抗拉强度⼤与重量轻的特点,这就使得它在⻜机制造上变得很重要。(which 代替主句整个意思,引出⾮限制性定语从句。)
  • The machine, as might be expected,has stopped operating. 不出所料,机器停⽌了操作。(as 引出⾮限制性定语从句)
  • We will put off the test until next week, when the weather may be better. 我们要将试验延期到下周,那时天⽓也许会更好些。(when引出⾮限制性定语从句。)
  • In 1953 he came to Tianjin, where he has lived ever since. 他是 1953 年来天津的,从那时起他⼀直住在天津。(where 引出⾮限制性定语从句。)
  • I met the boat man, who then took me across the ferry. 我遇⻅了船夫,他把我从渡⼝渡到对岸。(who引出⾮限制性定语从句。)

Noun, Verb, Adjective changing rules

The plural form of nouns 名词复数

1.add -s | 1.清辅音后/s/;2.浊辅音和元音后 /z/; | bags, maps, cars

2.”s, sh, ch, x” add -es |  /iz/ | bus-buses, watch-watches

3.”ce, se, ze, (d)ge” add -s | 读/iz/ | license-licenses

4.”consonant+y” change “y” to “i” and add -es | /z/ | baby-babies

5.Proper nouns or vowel+y add -s | two Marys, the Henrys, monkeys, holidays

–1.add -s | photos, pianos, radios, zoos, zeros
–2.add -es | potatoes, tomatoes

7.”f, fe”:
–1. add -s | beliefs, roofs, safes, gulfs
–2. change “f, fe” to “ves” | half-halves, knife-knives, leaf-leaves, wolf-wolves, wife-wives, life-lives, thief-thieves, handkerchief-handkerchieves

8.”oo” change to “ee” | foot-feet, tooth-teeth

9.same | deer, sheep, fish

10.special | child-children, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, mouse-mice, man-men, woman-women


加’s, s结尾只加’, 有特例什么都不加但要用of连接

Gerund 动名词

1.add -ing

2.”e” does not pronounce | del “e” add -ing | take-taking, make-making, dance-dancing

3.Stressed Closed Syllables | double last letter and add -ing | cut-cutting, put-putting, begin-beginning

4.”ie” | change “ie” to “y” add -ing | lie-lying, tie-tying, die-dying

Past tense and Past participle 过去式、分词

1. add -ed

2.”e” does not pronounce | add -d | lived moved decided declined hoped judged raised wiped

3.”consonant+y” change “y” to “i” and add -ed | studied tried copied justified cried carried embodied emptied

4.Stressed Closed Syllables | double last letter and add -ed| stopped begged fretted dragged dropped planned dotted dripped

5.special | go-went, make – made get – got buy – bought come – came fly-flew

Third person singular verb动词第三人称单数

1.add -s

2.”s, x, ch, o” add -es;如:guesses, fixes, teach—teaches, brush—brushes, go—goes,do—does,watch—watches,catch—catches

3.”consonant+y” change “y” to “i” and add -es | study-studies, carry-carries, fly-flies, worry-worries



1. 现在词尾加-er/est.




2. 以字母e结尾的词,在词尾加-r/-st.

eg: late-later-latest




3. 以辅音字母加-y结尾的双音节词,先把“y”改为“i”,再加-er/-est.

eg: easy-easier-easiest





4. 以只有一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节词,先双写辅音字母再加-er/-est.

eg: big-bigger-biggest





5. 多音节词,在词尾加-more/-most.

eg: beautiful-more beautiful-most beautiful

serious-more serious-most serious

outgoing-more outgoing-most outgoing