语法:状语从句

概述

状语从句是三大从句中结构最简单的一个,它由一个有意义的、表达一定逻辑关系的从属连词+完整的简单句构成。

学习状语从句的重点是认识各个连接词,达到会认、会用的程度,不必纠结它属于八大类或者九大类状语从句的哪一种,所以其更接近词汇范畴而非语法范畴。但达到会认、会用各连接词也绝非一件容易之事,状语从句的连词多且杂,需要长时间的积累和消化。

位置

状语从句可以在主句之前或是之后。在之前,需要加逗号,来连接

一、时间状语从句

常用引导词:when,as,while,as soon as,before,after,since,not….until

特殊引导词:the minute,the moment,the second,every time,the day,the instant

二、地点状语从句

常用引导词:where

特殊引导词:wherever,anywhere,everywhere

三、原因状语从句

常用引导词:because,since,as,

特殊引导词:seeing that,now that,in that,considering that,given that.

Now that everybody has come, let’s begin our conference.
The higher income tax is harmful in that it may discourage people from trying to earn more.

四、目的状语从句

常用引导词:so that,in order that

特殊引导词:lest,in case,for fear that,in the hope that,for the purpose that

The boss asked the secretary to hurry up with the letters so that he could sign them.
The teacher raised his voice on purpose that the students in the back could hear more clearly.

五、结果状语从句

常用引导词:so…that,such…that…

特殊引导词:such that,to the degree that,to the extent that,to such a degree that…

He got up so early that he caught the first bus.
It’s such a good chance that we must not miss it.
To such a degree was he excited that he couldn’t sleep last night.

六、条件状语从句

常用引导词:if,unless,whether(whether…or not)

特殊引导词:as/so long as,only if,providing/provided that,supposing that,in case…

We’ll start our project if the president agrees.
You will certainly succeed so long as you keep on trying.
Provided that there is no opposition, we shall hold the meeting here.

七、让步状语从句

常用引导词:though,although,even if,even though

特殊引导词:in spite of the fact that,whatever,whoever,wherever,whenever,however

Much as I respect him, I can’t agree to his proposal.
The old man always enjoys swimming even though the weather is rough.
He won’t listen whatever you may say.

八、比较状语从句

常用引导词:as,than

特殊引导词:the more … the more …,just as …

She is as bad-tempered as her mother.
The more you exercise, the healthier you will be.
Food is to men what oil is to machine.

九、方式状语从句

常用引导词:as,as if…

特殊引导词:the way…

When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
She behaved as if she were the boss.
Sometimes we teach our children the way our parents have taught us.

 


以下是之前总结的,要和上面合并

 

Adverb clause using Adverb Conjunction(副词连词,还是连词)

In front of SUBJECT, and turn the sentence behind into a adverb clause.

Because of me, he study very hard. This is wrong : He because me study very hard.

⌈ I like him because he often help the poor.

Because he often help the poor, I like him. ⌋ Attention the [,]

When / Once / While / If / Though / Although

When he came I was singing. When 引导的叫状语从句

If clause SUBJECT is same as main sentence SUBJECT, hidden the SUBJECT of clause and set the Verb to present participle.

eg. When I saw him, I felt happy. = When seeing him, I fell happy .

eg. While I was in Beijing, I had a good time. = While being in Beijing, I had a good time.

eg. When I’m unhappy, I don’t feel like talking. = When unhappy, I don’t feel like talking

eg.When I have money, I’ll buy a car. = When having money, I’ll buy a car.

eg.If I am rich, I’ll buy a car. = If rich, I’ll buy a car.

eg.This is wrong : If having money, I’ll buy a car.

 

3.Conjunctive Adverb(这是副词,不是连词)

however / therefore / Thus

He is nice, so I like him.  =  He is nice; therefore, I like him. = He is nice; I , therefore, like him. = He is nice. Therefore, I like him.

This is wrong : He is nice, therefore I like him.

He is nice, but I don’t like him.  = He is nice; However, I don’t like him.

 

 

Conjunction

作用

三大虚词之一(冠词、连词、介词)。

连词的主要作用:连接 句子 和 句子

分类

第一种,纯正连词,它有实意,起连接作用,可称为“全职连词”,此类表达逻辑关系的连词,数量有限,且通常不可省略(一旦省略,一个句子就会出现两个以上谓语)。

第二种,有实意,但本身不是连词,主要是特殊疑问词,由于其通常出现在句首且非常好识别,所以它“兼职”了连词的作用,应用于特殊疑问句作名词性从句。

第三种,无实意,连接两个完整的句子,是被“借用”而来,充当连词,它包括that和某些特殊疑问词,应用于陈述句作名词性从句和定语从句。

连接副词不是连词

英语中有一类副词,它表达某种逻辑或时间关系,能够使上下文在语意方面连接得更顺畅。常见的有however,therefore,hence,accordingly,meanwhile,furthermore,besides,then等等。

总结

1.英文的连词承担重要的语法功能,是连接句子的重要方式,而中文的连词语法功能很小;

2.英文注重显性连接,句子的连接处需要很明显,所以I have
bought two ballpens, neither of them writes well.错误,而I have
bought two ballpens, neither of which writes well.正确;

3.连词和连接副词在语法层面有本质上的区别。

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adjective

作用

修饰名词,做定语

比较级,最高级

一般语法书都列出一条规则:最高级要加定冠词。其实,冠词是跟着名词走的。出现在名词短语中的形容词,它前面才有可能会有冠词出现。如果是表语或者补语的形容词,不存在名词短语中,自然也没有冠词的问题。例如:

Yangmingshan is crowded. 阳明山人潮汹涌。

Yangmingshan is most crowded in March. 三月的阳明山人最多。

形容词的位置

作定语的形容词通常都放在名词前面,但是有时也会后置。
eg. I met someone quite talkative at the party.

名词短语中的形容词顺序

关于这个语法点,旋元佑先生在《语法俱乐部》中总结得非常好:“一般语法书上在此只是列出一些大小、形状、颜色等等的顺序要求学生背下来,其实形容词顺序不必背,而有一定的道理可循。越是表达名词属性的形容词越要靠近名词。亦即,越是不可变的、客观的特征越要靠近名词。反之,越是可变的、临时的、主观的因素则要越要放的远离名词。”

以下两个示例及分析均摘自旋元佑《语法俱乐部》:

The murder left behind bloody old black Italian leather glove.

(凶手丢下一只沾血、老旧、黑色、意大利的皮手套。)

leather放得最近glove,因为leather是内容,glove是形式,内容与形式是不可分。就算手套剪碎了,皮革材料还在里面。表示产地的Italian也是属于不可变的因素。而且,an Italian glove(意大利手套)有相当强的表示属性的功能——告诉别人这是哪一种手套。至于说颜色black,在皮革染上黑色之后就不会变了。Old则是手套制成之后由新慢慢变旧的。至于bloody,原先没有沾血,行凶时沾上。只要拿去洗,随时可以变干净,旧则不能再变新了,所以bloody这个形容词和手套的属性最无关,也是最可变的修饰语,就要放在这一队形容词的最前面。再看一个例子:

He’s wearing a handsome old brown U.S. Air Force leather flying jacket.

(他身穿一件帅气、陈旧、褐色、美国空军皮质飞行夹克。)

这个例子提供读者依据上述原则去揣摩一下。提示handsome是主观的字眼。夹克帅不帅,见仁见智,所以handsome是和jacket的属性最无关的字眼。而flying jacket一定要放在一起才能表示“飞行夹克”,所以flying是表示这种夹克属性最强的字眼,要放得最接近。

可视作形容词的名词

当两个名词连用时,前一个名词通常起形容词作用,作定语。如 建设银行,pencil box。

Verb 动词

助动词:一般性助动词 + 情态动词

一般性助动词包括be,do和have。一般性助动词的作用是为主动词提供时态、语态与语气信息。

做助动词的be,do和have只有语法意义,没有实际意义,但一旦它们做谓语,通常有实际意义,请注意理解区别

了解主动词和助动词的区别有利于理解助动词的三个主要作用:

(1)与主动词的结合,为谓语提供时态、语态、语气等信息;

(2)通过“移动自身”即调整语序形成疑问语气;

(3)通过“否定”自身形成否定语气。

现代英语只保留了be动词人称的变化,而实意动词人称的变化基本只剩下“第三人称单数需要加s”这一条规则。

时态就是一般过去进行完成啥的。语态就是主动被动。语气就是陈述、疑问、否定、强调、感叹、祈使等,每个都是知识点

 

系动词

这类系动词有be动词,感官动词feel、look、sound、taste,类be动词seem与appear(表达含义和be动词接近,但是语气没有be动词肯定):
表达主语由一种状态/特征转变为另一种状态/特征,这类系动词有become,grow,turn,go等等:
表示主语维持某种状态/特征,这类系动词有remain,stay,keep,hold,continue等:
近似于不及物动词的系动词,这类动词有be born,die,married等,这类动词较少,读者只需理解即可:

情态动词

不能直接做谓语,只能和 动词原形 一起构成谓语

might(确定度30%),may,could,can,should,ought,would,will,must(确定度99%)

can (could), may (might), must, need, ought to, dare (dared), shall (should), will (would)

1.只做情态动词:may, might, must…
2.可做情态动词又可做实义动词:如:need, dare…
3.具有情态动词特征:have(had,has) to,used to, ought to
4.可做情态动词又可作助动词:如:shall(should),will(would)
情态动词无人称和数的变化,情态动词后面跟的动词须用原形,否定式构成是在情态动词后面加 “not”。个别情态动词有现在式和过去式两种形式,过去式用来表达更加客气,委婉的语气,时态性不强,可用于过去,现在或将来。情态动词属非及物动词,故没有被动语态。

Grammar : 非谓语动词

概述

不定式(除了动词都可以当。即:名词、形容词、副词)

现在分词、过去分词(只有当形容词、副词时才是非谓语动词。分词做状语可以看成状语从句的简化结果,原理上分词是不能做副词的)前面是be或者have时,分词就是谓语的一部分。

动名词(只能当名词)

不定式

不定式是省略了主语的从句。这个省略掉的主语被称为不定式的隐含主语,或逻辑主语

动词不定式的to属于小品词,不属于任何词类。参考《牛津高阶词典》to 2。若句子中的to是介词,则动词要用动名词ing形式

I am glad to meet you.  = I am glad that I could meet you.

由于不定式一般表示发生在将来的动作,改写时须在从句谓语前加入will、would、can、could、should等表示将来的助动词。

知识点

令人…的用现在分词

感到…的用过去分词