Grammar : Inversion Sentence

1.否定倒装句

I have never seen such a pretty girl as she.

Never have I seen such a pretty girl as she.

2.So / Such

She is so kind, that she deserves all I respect.

So kind is she, that…

3.地点副词

A boy stood there.

There stood a boy.

4.完全倒装句

He who works hard is respectable.

Respectable is he who works hard.

5.as 取代 though

Though he is nice, I dislike him.

Nice as he is, I dislike him.

 

 

 

 

Grammar : 非谓语动词

概述

不定式(除了动词都可以当。即:名词、形容词、副词)

现在分词、过去分词(只有当形容词、副词时才是非谓语动词。分词做状语可以看成状语从句的简化结果,原理上分词是不能做副词的)前面是be或者have时,分词就是谓语的一部分。

动名词(只能当名词)

 

 

知识点

令人…的用现在分词

感到…的用过去分词

 

 

 

 

Grammar : Preposition

定义

名词之前,表明其后的名词与别的词之间的某种关系,例如位置关系、时间关系、逻辑关系等。

理论上,介词后面都应该接名词。但随着语言的发展,很多介词具有了不接名词的副词性用法。eg. She climbed up. 这里的up修饰动词climbed。这里不要较真,把当做副词的介词,还看成介词就好。

常用介词概览

表时间点:at, on, in

表时间区间:during,for,over,within,throughout,from和to等

表时间其他概念:表示其他时间概念的介词有before,after,since,until,till,between,up to

表方位:at ,in, on, to,for,above, over,below, under,in front of, in the front of,beside,behind beside

表原因:for

 

表方法:by,with,through

表数量:about(around),over

具体用法

参看这两篇文章:

https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E4%BB%8B%E8%AF%8D/1254

https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/21796933

 

Grammar: The difference between Adverbial and Complement

Push the door open.

‘open’ is complement. It description the OBJECT(door).

Push the door hard.

‘hard’ is adverbial. It description the Verb(push)

In most situation, not all situation:

Complement only have relationship with Noun.Adverb only have relationship with Verb.

 

I played football happy.

‘happy’ is complement.

I played football happily.

‘happily’ is adverbial.

I played football yesterday. / I played football on the square.

‘yesterday and on the square’ art adverbial.

 

 

Grammar: Appositive

同位语
    在某⼀句⼦成分后⾯有另外的词、短语或从句(同位语从句)对该成分作进⼀步说明,在语法上⼜处于同⼀地位(即作同⼀个成分),称为同位语。
    ⼀、同位语在所说明的句⼦成分之后,其间没有逗号
  1. Unlike oxygen, the element nitrogen is not active. 与氧不同,元素氮不活泼。(unlike 为介词。)
  2. In today’s China, we returned students are able to do what we could not do before. 在今⽇的中国我们归国留学⽣能做过去不能做的事情。
  3. Thanks to the help of the experts they each all obtained great success. 多亏专家的帮助,他们各位都取得了很⼤的成功。(thanks to 为复合介词。)
  4. They are all familiar with TV home shopping. 他们都熟悉在家进⾏电视购物。(谓语是 be 时,all 挪后。)
    ⼆、同位语前后有逗号、冒号或破折号。
  1. Yesterday they each saw Dr.Fang, a senior engineer. 昨天他们各位都⻅到了⽅博⼠,他是⼀位⾼级⼯程师。
  2. The simplest atom, the hydrogen atom, contains one proton and one electron. 最简单的原⼦氢含有⼀个质⼦和⼀个电⼦。
  3. Henry is there, near the window. 亨利在那边,在窗⼾附近。
  4. The heat liberated during chemisorption is usually large, of order of the heat of chemical reaction. 化学吸附中放出的热量通常很⼤,与化学反应热不相上下。
  5. They make different types of computers, each with its characteristics. 他们制造各种型式的计算机,每种各有其⾃⼰的特点。
  6. Agnes will visit two cities: Beijing and Shanghai. 阿格尼丝将访问两个城市:北京和上海。
  7. We all have a common desire – to realize the four modernizations in China. 我们都有⼀个共同的愿望——在中国实现四个现代化。(注意不定式短语作同位语。)
    三、⽤ or 引出同位语
  1. The boiling temperature, or boiling point, is the temperature at which a liquid boils under ordinary pressure. 沸腾温度即沸点,系液体在常压下沸腾的温度。
  2. Under certain conditions this compound splits up, or decomposes, into two substances. 在⼀定条件下,该化合物就裂解即分解为两种物质。
  3. This weight equals one kilogram or 2.2046 pounds. 这个重量等于⼀公⽄即 2.2046 磅。
  4. The energy of electric current, or of electricity in motion, may be converted to any other form of energy. 电流的能量即动电的能量,可以转化为任何其它种能量。
    四、⽤ such as 或 as 引出同位语
  1. Some solid fuels, such as wood and coal, are chiefly composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 某些固体燃料,例如⽊头和煤,主要是由碳、氢和氧构成的。
  2. Some building materials such as cement and reinforcing bars are widely used in capital construction. 某些建筑材料,例如⽔泥和钢筋,⼴泛使⽤于基本建设中。
  3. Part of your job as a teacher is to really understand your pupils’ personal problems. 真正地了解你所教的学⽣的个⼈问题是你教师⼯作的⼀部分。(表⽰什么职业的⼯作引出同位语时,as前不要加such。)
  4. Plastics as a class are not suitable as materials to carry heavy structural loads. 塑料作为⼀类材料,并不适于作承受重型结构负荷的材料。(第⼀个 as 引出同位语,⽽第⼆个 as 则引出主语补语。)
    五、⽤ of 引出同位语,这时 of 前常是⼀个概括的名称,of 后是具体的东西或具体数值
  1. This automobile is running at a speed of 70 miles an hour. 该汽⻋正以每⼩时 70 英⾥的速度⾏驶。
  2. This liquid has a temperature of about 80℃. 该液体的温度为 80℃ 左右。(未按原⽂结构翻译)
  3. He worked in the city of Tianjin two years ago. 两年前他在天津市⼯作。
  4. Before Agnes there is a question of what to do first. 在阿格尼丝⾯前有⼀个先做什么的问题。
    六、⽤ namely, for example, including, particularly, that is (或i.e.) 等引出同位语
  1. There are two kinds of charges, namely, positive and negative (charges). 电荷有两种,即正电荷和负电荷。
  2. We have only one way of solving the difficulty, namely, to rely on our own efforts. 我们只有⼀条解决困难的途径,即依靠⾃⼰的努⼒。
  3. In China there are many cities, for example, Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin. 中国有许多城市,例如北京、上海和天津。
  4. Many of us, including Lin Hua, have been to Beijing zoo. 我们中间有许多⼈,包括林华在内,都去过北京动物园。
  5. I want to visit these modern factories, especially the one where you work. 我想参观这些现代化的⼯⼚,特别是你⼯作所在的那个⼚。
  6. Weight is directly related to the mass of a body, that is (或 i.e.), to the amount of matter in it. 重量是和物体的质量即物体内的物质数量直接有关的。
    七、⽤连词 that 等引出从句作同位语,称为同位语从句。有时省略that,造成难点
  1. This experiment leads to the conclusion that unlike charges attract each other. 这个实验导致这样⼀个结论:异性电荷相吸。
  2. The question “what are things made of?” is answered differently by different kinds of scientists. 物质由什么构成的问题,不同的科学家就有不同的答案。
  3. The modern approach to nature is to ask the more modest question, how things move, and to seek the answerin experiment. 现代对⾃然研究的⽅法是提出“物体是怎样运动的”这样⼀个⽐较恰如其分的问题,然后通过实验探索其答案。
  4. Then arose the question whom we should trust in. 那时就产⽣了我们应该相信谁的问题。
  5. There can be no doubt that man is certain to turn to the laboratories if nature does not provide stationarymaterials. 毫⽆疑问,如果⾃然界不能提供稳定的材料,⼈类⼀定会转向实验室。
  6. The fact that metals can be drawn into wires is known to us. ⾦属可以拔丝这⼀事实是我们都知道的。
  7. The thought came to him that the process should be conducted out of contact with the air. 他突然想起,该过程应该在不接触空⽓的情况下进⾏。
  8. Lisa told us the news, namely that the new shop would be open on and after next Sunday. 莉萨告诉我们⼀条消息,即这家新商店将从下星期⽇起开始营业。(注意同位语从句前加 namely.)
  9. Let me know your college address, that is, where you live in term time. 让我们知道你所在的学校地址,即你上学时所住的地⽅。(注意同位语从句前加插⼊句 that is。)
  10. Whenever the teacher mentioned my spelling mistakes in class, I had a feeling he was getting at me. 每当⽼师在课堂上提起我的拼写错误,我就有⼀种他在找我岔的感觉。(feeling 后省略了 that。)

Gramma : Complement

定义

补语都放在中心语后头。
补语多用形容词、数量词、趋向动词、介宾结构来担任,各种关系的词组也常作补语。

宾语补语

一、宾语补语的特点
这类常⽤的及物动词有:make (使),consider (认为),cause (引起、使得),see (看⻅),find (发现),call (称为、叫做),get (让、使得),have(让、使得)let(开始、使…开始)等。
“宾语+宾语补语”就称为复合宾语。
  1. eg
    1. Electricity can make a machine run. 电能使机器运转。
    2. We consider (或 think) the answer (to be) correct. 我们认为这个答案是正确的。
    3. Changes in temperature and pressure often cause matter to changes from one state to another. 温度和压⼒的变化,常引起物质从⼀种状态变为另⼀种状态。
    4. It is the reform and opening-up policy that is making China a powerful country. 就是这个改⾰开放政策正使中国变为⼀个强国。?这句没明白?
    5. I found the empty oil tank. 我发现这个空油箱。(定语)
    6. I found the oil tank empty. 我发现这个油箱是空的。(宾语补语)
二、宾语补语的表示法
宾语补语在句中⼀般有九种表⽰法:
名词(或名词性物主代词);形容词;不定式;现在分词;过去分词;As…;介词短语;副词;从句。
带有宾语补语的⼀般句型为:某些及物动词(如 make等)+ 直接宾语(名词或代词)+ 宾语补语

主语补语(表语本质就是主语补语)

注意:主语补语是在句子后面的那部分。直接修饰主语的,叫定语。

 一、特点及表示法
在带有主语补语的句中,谓语⼀般是被动语态。
带有宾语补语的句⼦,改⽤被动语态表⽰时,则句中原来的宾语变为主语,原来说明直接宾语的宾语补语,就变成说明主语的主语补语。
其表⽰法⼀般可概括如下:有关动词被动态+主语补语(⼀般可⽤下列七种形式表⽰)
  1. ⽤名词及其短语表⽰ eg.
    1. This process is called evaporation. 这种过程叫做蒸发。
    2. ⽐较:We call this process evaporation. 我们把这种过程称之为蒸发。(evaporation 为宾语补语)
    3. Evaporation is considered a physical process. 蒸发被认为是⼀种物理过程。
    4. He was elected monitor in our class. 他在我班被选为班⻓。
    5. This law is named(或 termed)Ohm’s law. 这个定律称为欧姆定律。
    6. He died a poor man.他死时很穷。(不是被动语态吧)
    7. He died a millionaire.他死的时候是个百万富翁
  2. ⽤形容词及其短语表⽰
    1. Computers are considered very important to us. 计算机被认为对我们⾄关重要。
    2. ⽐较:People considercomputers very important to us. ⼈们认为计算机对我们⾄关重要。(宾语补语)
    3. The medicine must be kept dry. 这药品必须保持⼲燥。
    4. It has been made clear when the video conference will be held. 已明确宣布何时举⾏电视会议。(句中 when 引出主语从句,⽽前⾯ it 为形式主语。)
    5. He came in drunk.他走进来的时候醉醺醺的.
    6. They married young.他们结婚时还年轻.(不是被动语态吧)
    7. He died happy.他怀着幸福的0死去.(不是被动语态吧)
    8. No man is born wise.没有生而知之.(不是被动语态吧)
    III. ⽤动词不定式及其短语表⽰主语补语时,不定式动词前⾯都带 to。
  1. Oil is known to be in the liquid state. ⼤家知道油处于液态。(未按原⽂结构翻译)⽐较:We know oil to be in the liquid state. 我们知道油处于液态。(宾语补语)
  2. a. James was seen to buy the game software for his son. 有⼈看⻅詹姆⼠为他⼉⼦买了游戏软件。(未按原⽂结构翻译)
  3. b. Efforts were made by Linda to develop software. 琳达为开发软件作出了努⼒。(本句内不定式短语却表⽰⽬的状语。为此必须注意上下⽂。)
    Ⅳ. ⽤现在分词及其短语表⽰
  1. They were seen playing video games. 曾有⼈⻅到他们在玩电⼦游戏。(未按原⽂结构翻译)
  2. ⽐较:We saw them playing video games. 我们曾⻅到他们在玩电⼦游戏。(宾语补语)
  3. The boy was found sleeping on the ground this morning. 今天早晨有⼈发现这男孩睡在地上。(意译)
    V. ⽤过去分词及其短语表⽰
  1. Sulfur is found combined with many metals. 硫被发现同许多⾦属化合在⼀起。(主语补语)
  2. ⽐较:We find sulfur combined with many metals. 我们发现硫同许多⾦属化合在⼀起. (宾语补语)
  3. The information industries are found well developed in our country. ⼈们发现信息产业在我国得到很好发展。
    Ⅵ. ⽤ as 引出主语补语
  1. This maybe taken as (being) a result of the revolution in computer hardware. 这可以当作是计算机硬件⾰新的⼀种结果。
  2. ⽐较:We may take this as a result of the revolution in computer hardware. 我们可以把这当作计算机硬件⾰新的⼀种结果。(宾语补语)
  3. This law is known as (或 is referred to as) the law of the sea. 这个法律通称为海洋法。
  4. Electric current may be looked on as (或 seen as 或 regarded as) being a flow of electrons through a medium.电流可以被视为电⼦在介质中的流动。(句中 being 可省略. )
  5. Water can be shown as containing impurities. 可以证明⽔含有杂质。(原义:⽔是可以被证明含有杂质的。)
  6. An atom may be thought of as made up of nucleus and electrons. 原⼦可以被认为是由原⼦核和电⼦所组成的。
    Ⅶ. ⽤介词短语表⽰
  1. Petroleum is considered of much use for our chemical industry. ⽯油被认为对我们的化学⼯业⼤有⽤处。
  2. Your medicine must be kept in the original. 你的药必须保持原状。
  3. One layer of liquid was found past another. 发现有⼀层液体超越另⼀层液体。

表语 Predicative

简单来说,表语是用来说明主语的,而宾语很多情况是主语的对象
表语的本质是主语补语
一. 名词作表语
    Africa is a big continent.非洲是个大洲.
    That remains a puzzle to me.这对我还是个难题.
二. 代词作表语
    What’s your fax number?    你的传真号是多少?
三. 形容词作表语
    I feel much better today. 我今天感觉好多了.
    TV home shopping is popular here this year.
四. 数词作表语
    She was the first to learn about it.她是第一个知道的人.
五. 不定式或ing形式作表语
    Her job is selling computers.她的工作是销售电脑.
    Our next step was to get raw materials ready.我们下一步是把原料准备好.
六. 介词短语作表语
    The patient is out of danger.病人脱险了.
    I don’t feel at ease.我感到不自在.
七. 副词作表语
    The sun is up.太阳升起来了.
    I must be off now.现在我得走了.
八. 从句作表语
    This is what he said.这就是他所说的话.

Grammar: Adverbial

作用

状语就是宏观意思的副词
Adverbials often indicate the verb in a sentence.
Here I only discuss the situation when adverbial indicate TIME, PLACE, REASON, RESULT, PURPOSE, CONDITION, DEGREE, PATTERN(方式), CONCESSION, and ACCOMPANY.
Time: The dust particles will soon settle down.
Place: In the box there are a pair of scissors, two pieces of glass, and so on.
Reason: A large amount of energy is wasted in machines due to friction. /     Electricity is most widely used mainly because it is easily transmitted. (mainly 修饰后⾯整个原因状语从句。)
Purpose: The signs and symbols in mathematics are used for convenience.
Condition: Under proper conditions the speed of the machine will be slowed down.  / Carbon unites with oxygen to form CO and CO2.
Degree: Your mobile phone is one centimeter longer than mine. (为什么不是one centimeter?) / Light wave length is only a few millionths of an inch long.  / Your explanation is correct to some extent.
Pattern: The lamp is swinging back and forth.
Concession: In spite of the difficulties, we continued to do our test.
Accompany:  The soldiers dashed forward, machine-gun in hand. /   They were out working already. 
II. 状语表⽰法:
A. 副词及副词性词组作状语:
  1. Light travels most quickly. 光传得最快。
  2. Enterprises of tertiary industries and Hi-tech companies are going up here and there. 第三产业企业和⾼科技公司到处都不断涌现出来。
  3. 《Computers》is difficult, but I like to study it all the more. 《计算机》难,但我仍然喜欢学。
  4. He is quite old; none the less he works like a young man. 他虽然很⽼了,但还像年轻⼈那样⼯作。
B. 名词或名词性词组作状语:
  1. We increased the production of steel last year. 去年我们增加了钢的产量。
  2. Work is done when a force acts on a body and moves it a certain distance. 当⼀个⼒作⽤于物体上并把它移动⼀定距离时,就作了功。
  3. The machine weighs 100 lb. 该机器重100磅。
  4. He reached the station 5 minutes later. 他晚到⻋站五分钟。(句中 5 minutes 说明副词 later。)
  5. The Yangtze River is world famous. ⻓江是世界闻名的。(句中 world 说明形容词 famous。)
C. 介词短语作状语:
  1. This X-ray apparatus has been in operation for two years. 该 X 光机已运⾏两年了。
  2. We should on no account (或 should not on any account) neglect our physical exercises. 我们决不应忽视体育锻炼。
  3. She will in no wise give up study. 她决不放弃学习。
  4. We do everything with the view (或 aim) of serving the people. 我们做⼀切事情,都抱着为⼈⺠服务的⽬的。
  5. With the first appearance of the sun, the birds begin to sing. 太阳⼀出,⻦就开始唱歌。
  6. At the thought of his words, they took courage and fought on. ⼀想到他的话,他们就有了勇⽓,并继续战⽃下去。
  7. He won’t go at all risks. 他不会冒⼀切危险前去。
  8. At all events, you ought not to stay here. ⽆论如何,你不应当留在这⾥。
  9. She is living at No. 305 in the Tianjin Hotel. 她住在天津饭店 305 号房间。
  10. He did it in a certain way. 他⽤某种⽅法办了这件事。
D. 动词不定式作状语(详⻅第 053 ⼆、Ⅶ):
  1. (In order) To calculate the amount of work done, we multiply the force by the distance. 为了计算所作功的数值,我们将⼒乘以距离。(⽬的状语)
  2. CO combines with oxygen to form CO2. ⼀氧化碳和氧化合,便⽣成⼆氧化碳。(结果状语)
  3. It is too manifest to need a word of argument. 太明⽩了,⽆须说话解释。(程度状语)
  4. We are proud to have won first place. 我们因赢得第⼀⽽感到⾃豪。(原因状语)
注:有时甚⾄还⽤“名词+不定式”构成的复合结构作状语。例如:Here is the first volume, the second one to come out next month. 这⾥是第⼀卷,⽽第⼆卷下⽉问世。
E. 过去分词、现在分词短语(包括独⽴分词结构)作状语(详⻅第 37 节、⼀、Ⅵ 和Ⅶ. A. (a),第 54节、⼀Ⅳ、D 和 XIV、A )。
  1. If there is a letter, you read it eagerly, pleased that your friend has thought of you. 假如有⼀封来信,你如饥似渴地读着信,并为你的朋友惦你⽽感到⾼兴。
  2. Starting with very simple equipment, they have produced a great number of transistors. 由简陋的设备起家(原义“着⼿”),他们已⽣产了⼤量晶体管。
  3. a. Seen from an aeroplane, this would look like a great green sea. 从⻜机上看,这像是⼀⼤⽚碧绿的海。
    b. Looking from an aeroplane, you would see a great green sea. 从⻜机上看,你会看到⼀⼤⽚碧绿的海。(从a,b句中可看到句⾸分词和主语有语态关系。)
  4. Electrons being taken away,a body becomes charged. 由于移⾛了电⼦,物体就变为带电了。(独⽴分词结构)
  5. This (being) done, Joe went online. 这事做完后,乔就上⽹了。(同上)
  6. The test (being) over, we went to the computer center. 试验完毕后,我们就去计算机中⼼。(同上)
  7. Supper (being) ready, they came to the table. 晚餐准备好了,他们便向饭桌⾛去。(同上)
  8. The oil having been used up, the car stopped. 油⽤完后,汽⻋就停了下来。(同上)
F. ⽤逗号隔开的形容词短语作状语:
  1. Being fatally ill, the boy was taken to the hospital. 那个男孩因病重被送往医院。
  2. John, fatally ill (=who was fatally ill), sent for a doctor. 约翰因病重派⼈去请医⽣。
  3. The scientists are searching, eager for truth. 科学家们为渴望真理⽽进⾏探索。
从上⾯第1、2句中可看出,这⾥的形容词短语是由前加 being 或由⾮限制性定语从句演变并紧缩⽽成的。现在它已可直接⽤作状语(⻅第 3 句)。
G. 从句作状语:
  1. When we are speaking of power, time is taken into account. 谈到功率时,我们已考虑了时间。(时间状语从句)
  2. There is air all around us although we cannot see it. 我们周围到处有空⽓,虽然我们看不⻅它。(让步状语从句)
  3. We can find out the amount of x because y and z are known quantities. 由于 y 和 z 是已知量,因此我们能求出x值。(原因状语从句)
  4. Seeing that (= Since) the chemical composition of matter remains unchanged, this is not a chemical change.既然物质的化学组成仍保持不变,这就不是化学变化。(原因状语从句)
  5. Once you begin, you must continue. ⼀旦开始,你就得继续下去。(条件状语从句)
  6. It is very difficult to live where there is little water. 在没有多少⽔的地⽅,⽣活是⼗分艰难的。(地点状语从句)
  7. We must strive for further progress in order that we may serve the people better. 我们必须继续求取进步,以便能更好地为⼈⺠服务。(⽬的状语从句)
  8. Just as the kilometer is the unit of length, so the ohm is the practical unit of resistance. 正像公⾥是⻓度的单位那样,欧姆就是电阻的实际单位。(⽅式状语从句)
  9. If we make a gap in the circuit the current will not be able to flow. 如果我们在电路⾥造成间隙,电流就不能流通。(条件状语从句)
  10. Through long power lines, electricity goes where (it is) needed. 电通过很⻓的电线,输送到需要电的地⽅。(地点状语从句)