Noun and Verb changing rule

The plural form of nouns

1.add -s | 1.清辅音后/s/;2.浊辅音和元音后 /z/; | bags, maps, cars

2.”s, sh, ch, x” add -es |  /iz/ | bus-buses, watch-watches

3.”ce, se, ze, (d)ge” add -s | 读/iz/ | license-licenses

4.”consonant+y” change “y” to “i” and add -es | /z/ | baby-babies

5.Proper nouns or vowel+y add -s | two Marys, the Henrys, monkeys, holidays

6.”o”:
–1.add -s | photos, pianos, radios, zoos, zeros
–2.add -es | potatoes, tomatoes

7.”f, fe”:
–1. add -s | beliefs, roofs, safes, gulfs
–2. change “f, fe” to “ves” | half-halves, knife-knives, leaf-leaves, wolf-wolves, wife-wives, life-lives, thief-thieves, handkerchief-handkerchieves

8.”oo” change to “ee” | foot-feet, tooth-teeth

9.same | deer, sheep, fish

10.special | child-children, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, mouse-mice, man-men, woman-women

Gerund

1.add -ing

2.”e” does not pronounce | del “e” add -ing | take-taking, make-making, dance-dancing

3.Stressed Closed Syllables | double last letter and add -ing | cut-cutting, put-putting, begin-beginning

4.”ie” | change “ie” to “y” add -ing | lie-lying, tie-tying, die-dying

Past tense and Past participle of Verb

1. add -ed

2.”e” does not pronounce | add -d | lived moved decided declined hoped judged raised wiped

3.”consonant+y” change “y” to “i” and add -ed | studied tried copied justified cried carried embodied emptied

4.Stressed Closed Syllables | double last letter and add -ed| stopped begged fretted dragged dropped planned dotted dripped

5.special | go-went, make – made get – got buy – bought come – came fly-flew

The third person singular verb

1.add -s

2.”s, x, ch, o” add -es;如:guesses, fixes, teach—teaches, brush—brushes, go—goes,do—does,watch—watches,catch—catches

3.”consonant+y” change “y” to “i” and add -es | study-studies, carry-carries, fly-flies, worry-worries

 

Personal Pronoun & Possessive Pronoun

我们 你们 他她它们
I we you you he she it they
me us you you him her it them
我的 我们的 你的 你们的 他的 她的 它的 他她它们的
 名 my our your your his her its their
 形 mine ours yours yours his hers its theirs

How do we combine two sentences?

There are 2 ways to combine two sentences : Punctuation and Conjunction.

1.Punctuation

1.semicolon  [;]

eg. He is a good student; he studies hard every day. I like him. //semicolon connect two related sentence.

2.dash [–] (press [ALT]+[-_] to type it on Mac) 

eg. He is a good student – he studies hard every day.  I like him. //dash connect two related sentence too.

2.Conjunction

Fist of all : This is wrong : Because he is a good student, so I like him very much.

Conjunction expressed a parallel or logic relationship.

Look at following 3 sentence:

He is a good student, so/and I like him very much.

I like him very much because he is a good student.(In front of because have no comma[,])

Because he is a good student, I like him very much.

He succeeded both because of his intelligence and because of his hard work.

Even though / Though / Although he is nice, (yet) I don’t like him.(yet in here is a adverb, although it’s right, but suggest don’t use it like this.)

and / or / but / not but: connect same things.

eg. He failed because he was lazy and because he was selfish. = He failed because he was lazy and selfish.

eg. Is she kind or stingy/mean?

eg. He is nice, but I don’t like him.

eg. He’s failed not because lazy but selfish.

as well as / rather than

eg. Peter as well as I is fun of music.

eg. Peter rather than I is fun of music. = Peter, not I, is fun of music.

eg. He is ugly rather than handsome. = He is ugly, not handsome.

not… but… / not only… but also… / either… or… / neither… nor…

eg. Not he but I am wrong.

eg. Not only he but also I am wrong.

eg. Either he or you are wrong.

eg. Neither you nor he is wrong.

3.Clause

Clause can NOT exist alone.

 

The Clause comes in 3 kinds :

(This is my classification method)

Adverb clause

Noun clause

The noun clause comes in 3 kinds:

代词: that

whether

疑问词:why, when, where,

Adjective clause

Adverb clause using Adverb Conjunction(副词连词,还是连词)

In front of SUBJECT, and turn the sentence behind into a adverb clause.

Because of me, he study very hard. This is wrong : He because me study very hard.

⌈ I like him because he often help the poor.

Because he often help the poor, I like him. ⌋ Attention the [,]

When / Once / While / If / Though / Although

When he came I was singing. When 引导的叫状语从句

If clause SUBJECT is same as main sentence SUBJECT, hidden the SUBJECT of clause and set the Verb to present participle.

eg. When I saw him, I felt happy. = When seeing him, I fell happy .

eg. While I was in Beijing, I had a good time. = While being in Beijing, I had a good time.

eg. When I’m unhappy, I don’t feel like talking. = When unhappy, I don’t feel like talking

eg.When I have money, I’ll buy a car. = When having money, I’ll buy a car.

eg.If I am rich, I’ll buy a car. = If rich, I’ll buy a car.

eg.This is wrong : If having money, I’ll buy a car.

 

3.Conjunctive Adverb(这是副词,不是连词)

however / therefore / Thus

He is nice, so I like him.  =  He is nice; therefore, I like him. = He is nice; I , therefore, like him. = He is nice. Therefore, I like him.

This is wrong : He is nice, therefore I like him.

He is nice, but I don’t like him.  = He is nice; However, I don’t like him.

 

 

3.Who / Whom / Which(关系代词)

形容词从句,也就是句子变成了形容词。

形容词从句都是关系代词引导的?

1.关系代词前面一定要有先行词(先行词就是被关系代词指代的名词)。

2.关系代词在所引导的形容词从句中必须要当主语或是宾语。

eg. He is a student who studies hard. = He is a student. He study hard. = He is a student and he study hard.

eg. He is a teacher whom I respect. = He is a teacher. I respect him.

3.否则,关系代词前面一定有介词。

eg. He is a man with/for whom I enjoy working. = He is a man whom(可省略) I enjoy working with/for. = He is a man, whom(前面有,就不能省略) I enjoy working with/for.

4.Before word ‘that’, there can not have comma or preposition.’That’ can replace who/whom/which.

eg. He is a man (that=whom) we all respect.

eg. He is a man (that=who) never lies.

4.Sometimes must use THAT! Before the “that” have a ‘est’ or a ‘first second’ or  a ‘Who,Whom,Which’.

eg. He is the best student that I have ever taught.

eg. She is the most beautiful girl that I’v ever seen.

eg. That is the first thing that I’v do.

eg. Who’s the boy that(who) is talking to Marry?

eg.What is the thing that(which) you are using?

 

有[,]叫做非限定修饰,前面说的东西应该是专有名词,有特殊性。

eg. This is my father, who is nice to me.

eg. Here comes Marry, who is nice to me.

没有[,]叫做限定修饰

eg. This is a student who studies hard.

eg. He is a boy who is handsome and kind.

eg. This is a book which I enjoy reading. = This is a book that I enjoy reading.

eg. This is a good book,(这里的逗号可有可无) which I bought yesterday.

 

插入语:

He is a man who I think never lies. PS:插入语不影响关系代词的格

He is a man whom I think we should all respect.

He is a man who I think is nice.

He is a man whom I think to be nice. I think him to be nice.不定式做宾补

Whose(任何物都用whose)关系代词所有格:

可以引导形容词从句,用来连接两个句子

Mr. Mrs. Miss. Ms.

This is Mr. Wang; his daughter is my girlfriend.

This is Mr. Wang, and his daughter is my girlfriend.

This is Mr. Wang whose daughter is my girlfriend.

这三个都是对的。

This is Mr. Wang; I love his daughter.

This is Mr. Wang, and I love his daughter.

This is Mr. Wang, whose daughter I love very much.

This is Mr. Wang, whose daughter I’m familiar with.

以上都是对的

I just bought a book whose content is interesting.

I just bought a book, the content of which is interesting.

I just bought a book, of which the content is interesting.

虽然上面都是对的,但最好的还是用whose.

关系副词where when why how.

这四个都是介词+关系代词变过来的

–Where–

I was born in Nanjing, which I met Marry.这样是错的,因为which不是做主语,所以要加介词,像下面这样。

I was born in Nanjing, in which I met Marry.

I was born in Nanjing, where I met Marry.

I went to the station, at which I met John.

I went to the station, where I met John.

I went to the top of hill, on which I met Peter.

I went to the top of hill, where I met Peter.

–when–

I was born on May 22 1984, on which it was raining.

I was born on May 22, 1984, when it was raining.

I was born in May, in which it was getting warmer.

I was born in May, when it was getting warmer.

–why–

why和the reason并存,可以同时出现

I know the reason, which he resigned for.

I know the reason, why he resigned.

I know the reason he resigned.

I know why he resigned.

以上都对,基本上why最简单,只由the reason引出

–how–

how和the way并存,但不可以同时出现

I don’t like the way, in which he talks.

This is wrong : I don’t like the way ,how he talks.

I don’t like the way he talks.

 

准关系代词 than, as

than前面是名词

I have more money than you have.

I have more money than you do.(知识点:两个动词,用do代替后面的)

I have more money than do you.(do和you也可以倒过来,后面再讲)

than前面是名词,则than叫做关系代词,但又和传统关系代词(who, whom, which)不同,than=than + the + money + which

I have more money than the money which you do.

I have more money than is needed.

I have more money than needed.(is 可以省略)

More friends than had been invited came.

than = than the friend who

than前面不是名词,则than是连词

Mary is more beautiful than Jane.

John is a person amiable

AS

I have such a car as you do.

as = as the car which

I don’t like such people as lie.

I don’t like such a person as lies.

He is nice, but I don’t like him.

There is no one who does not like him.(who…not…可以用but代替)

There is no one but likes him.

There is no music which I am not fond of.

There is no music but I am fond of.

The Article

Article is a type of determiner.

Article include two types: Indefinite article: a/an and definite article: the

Indefinite article

1.Indefinite article means ‘one’, but ‘one’ emphasize the number, ‘a/an’ emphasize ‘anyone’.

2.Plural(eg. men) can NOT use “a/an”.

3.The following circumstances can NOT use Indefinite article:

1.A word doesn’t have Plural form, such as Substance(eg. water) and Abstract(eg. honest) can NOT too.

2.Name and place can NOT use too.

4.When a/an used as complement:

Whether the complement can use ‘a/an’ depends on the subject.I don’t want to summarize a rule with this situation. I think I can control it by intuition.

eg: Mr. Robert was president of the school. Someone say he is a better president than Mr. White. Mr. Robert is also a member of the Council of the city.

Definite article

1.Definite article means ‘that’ or ‘those’.

2.The+Adjective = Noun. eg. the poor, the older

3.The + Proper nouns  = Unique. eg. the sun

4.This is a most interesting book. 这是⼀本⼗分有趣的书。(Compare:This is the most interesting book I have ever read. 这是我读过的最有趣的⼀本书。)

 

 

[Sentence] How a sentence make?

A very basic sentence is composed of a least two parts. One is the SUBJECT, and the other is A VERB.

First,We talk about the SUBJECT

1. SUBJECT must use NOUN. Even can use Pronoun, Infinitive, Gerund or noun clause. But all in all , they are NOUN.

2. The different between Infinitive and Gerund is that Infinitive mean haven’t happen yet and Gerund means already had happened.

3. There is 3 ways to make a Noun clause : That, Whether and Interrogative pronouns

1. Declarative sentence use that.eg:

That he loves me is true.

2. General question use whether.(General question is a sentence Only use YES or NO  to answer)eg:

Whether she is beautiful remains to be seen.
Whether she will com remains to be seen.

3. Special interrogative sentences use interrogative pronouns[except WHY].eg:

Where he will go is a mystery.
What he will do still a question.

4.If the SUBJECT is too long. We can use ‘it’ instead, and then put the long part into the end of the sentence.eg:

It makes me angry that he didn’t agree with me.
It remains to be seen whether she is beautiful.
It is a mystery where he will go.

5.What is noun parse? eg:

where to go.
what to do.

6.Some preposition phrase can also be used as SUBJECT.eg:

From Beijing to Guangzhou is a long distance.
From 1990 till 2010 is a long period time.

Second, We talk about VERB

1.The SUBJECT MUST be followed by VERB.

2.The Verb comes in 5 kinds: Complete Intransitive, Incomplete Intransitive, Complete Transitive, Incomplete Transitive and Dative

Attention: Some Verb has many meanings, some meanings are VI, but some are VT.

3.How to judge a word is Transitive or Intransitive?

I ___ it.  +  It 被 I ___ .

4.There are 5 kinds of basic sentence: SV, SVC, SVO, SVOC, SVOO.Each sentence corresponds to each verb.

S:Subject, V:Verb, O:Object, C:Complement, B:Be, G:Gerund, P: Past Participle, I:Infinitive

SV -> Complete Intransitive

SVC -> Incomplete Intransitive

SVO -> Complete Transitive

SVOC -> InComplete Transitive

SVOO -> Dative

5. SV / SBG : eg.

He danced.

He was dancing.

He fainted.

I know.

He fainted when he heard the bad news.

6.SVC :  Most of time, C is an adjective or noun. eg.

V not only ‘am/is/are’, also can be :

look 看起来是
sound 听起来是
smell
taste
feel 摸起来是
seen 似乎是
appear 显得是
turn 转变为
prove 证实为
become 成为
make 做为

I become a doctor.

I became knowledgeable.

She became beautiful.

He is a doctor.

He is handsome.

He is happy.

I look/sound/smell/taste/fell sad.

7.SVO / SBGO / SBP:  eg.

I love her.

I am loving her.

She is loved.

I want/plan to see him.

I enjoy dancing.

8.SVOC :

Common verbs in SVOC have : call, have, let, make, cause

as call:(VERB must use prototype)

I have him wash the car

as let:(VERB must use prototype)

I’ll let him sing a song

as force:

I’ll push him .

That story cause me cry.

I make him happy.

9.SVOO:

Dative verb: give, ask, buy, rob, expect, require, demand, lend, teach,

eg:

SVO (to/for/of/from) O

I gave him a car.

I ask him a question.

I gave a car to him.

I buy a car for him.

I asked him a question.

I asked a question of him.

He robbed me of my money. That’s wrong:He robbed my money of me.

10.How to distinguish Incomplete VI and Complete VT?

Incomplete VI can add an adjective, Complete VT can’t.

Third summary

When I see a Be, What is it mean?

1.It may SVC. I am man. You are Tom. He is handsome.

2.It may continuous tense. I am singing. He was dancing. You will be going to school tomorrow.

3.It may Passive Voice. She is loved. She is loved by him.

 

Coverage of English Grammar

[ Preposition + Article + Noun / Pronoun ] + Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Conjunction, Interjection(Exclamation) and Numeral

Subject + Predicate + Object + Attribute + Adverbial + Complement / Predicative + Synonyms

Personal Pronoun & Possessive Pronoun

None and verb change rules

Sentence : Single Sentence(Sentence Components) -> Complex Sentence(Clause) -> Inversion Sentence -> Not sentence, Just Phrase

Other Sentence: Imperative sentence / Exclamatory sentence / Question

Subjective(虚拟语气)

Tense

Non – Predicate Verb

Passive Voice