定语从句 – 形容词性

概述

形容词性,修饰名词

和状语从句一样,把疑问句的助动词还原。

后行词,就是把主语拆分成两部分,后面那部分的开头词汇。如:
This is the house where I was born.
拆分:1. This is the house. 2. In this house I was born.
后行词就是:In this house

位置

常规位置是在名词之前。定语从句的本质是从句作后置定语。(这不矛盾吗?)

who/whom

修饰人就用who/that。如果是宾格,也可以用“whom”,当然也能用who。但如果把介词提前,就必须用whom不能用who了。

He is the boy with whom I will go to shanghai.
I am looking for a man who is rich, cute and well-educated.

which/that

修饰事或者物就用which/that

The book which I am reading is written by Tomas Hardy.

Whose

修饰his,her,its,their,your one ‘s等等表示所属关系的词,用whose

He is the man whose car was stolen. = He is the man. His car was stolen.
You are the only one whose advice he might listen to.

Where

修饰地点

This is the house where I was born. = This is the house. In this house I was born.
This is the house that belongs to my brother. = This house belongs to my brother.
所以第二句用that,第一句用where

When

如果后行词是时间状语(通常是介词+表时间名词),就用when替换。

He came at a time when we needed help. = At that time we needed help.
He came at a time which was just perfect. = The time was just perfect.

Why

如果后行词是原因状语for this/that reason,就用why替换。

I knew the reason why he was late. = For this reason he was late.
The reason that he explained at the meeting was not acceptable. = He explained the reason at the meeting.

抽象时间地点,用where和when

Where可以替代抽象的地点状语、when可以代替抽象的时间状语,引导定语从句

English is a “fixed-word-order” language where each phrase has a fixed position. = In this language each phrase has a fixed position.
Life isn’t some musical cartoon where you sing a little song, and your insipid dreams magically come true! = In that cartoon you sing a little song, and your insipid dreams magically come true!
There are occasions when one must yield.(任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。) = One must yield on those occasions.

 

 

 

语法:名词性从句

概览

主要有三个:主从,宾从,表从。补从,好像没听说过,是不是同位语?

连接词有三类:that,if/wether,特殊疑问词:what, why, when, where, who/whom, whose, which, how

that(无意义) + 简单句

可当主从、宾从、表从。放哪都好用。名词性从句的that几乎都可以省略。

The defendant said that he didn’t do it. 宾
The most important thing is that we’re all right. 表
That he didn’t show up on time is strange. 主
It’s strange that he didn’t show up on time. 同样是主语从句。这样比上面那样表达更好。

wether/if(是否) + 简单句

其实就是一个wether/if引导的一般疑问句做名词成分。
表“是否”只用whether,表“如果”只用if。

I don’t know whether the stock will improve (or not). 宾
My concern is whether the stock will improve (or not).表
Whether the stock will improve (or not) doesn’t bother me.主

特殊疑问词 引导

这就不是特殊疑问词+简单句了。也不是标准的特殊疑问句。

实际的操作是将疑问词还原(前移的疑问词如is就移回主语后面,凭空添加的疑问词如do就去掉)

What you eat depends on who you are.

What you love to eat doesn’t bother me. 主
I don’t care what you love to eat. 宾
What matters most is what you love to eat. 主,表

从句时态

和主句没关系,该是啥就是啥。虽然很多情况下,主从句时态是相同的。

语法:状语从句

概述

状语从句是三大从句中结构最简单的一个,它由一个有意义的、表达一定逻辑关系的从属连词+完整的简单句构成。

学习状语从句的重点是认识各个连接词,达到会认、会用的程度,不必纠结它属于八大类或者九大类状语从句的哪一种,所以其更接近词汇范畴而非语法范畴。但达到会认、会用各连接词也绝非一件容易之事,状语从句的连词多且杂,需要长时间的积累和消化。

位置

状语从句可以在主句之前或是之后。在之前,需要加逗号,来连接

一、时间状语从句

常用引导词:when,as,while,as soon as,before,after,since,not….until

特殊引导词:the minute,the moment,the second,every time,the day,the instant

二、地点状语从句

常用引导词:where

特殊引导词:wherever,anywhere,everywhere

三、原因状语从句

常用引导词:because,since,as,

特殊引导词:seeing that,now that,in that,considering that,given that.

Now that everybody has come, let’s begin our conference.
The higher income tax is harmful in that it may discourage people from trying to earn more.

四、目的状语从句

常用引导词:so that,in order that

特殊引导词:lest,in case,for fear that,in the hope that,for the purpose that

The boss asked the secretary to hurry up with the letters so that he could sign them.
The teacher raised his voice on purpose that the students in the back could hear more clearly.

五、结果状语从句

常用引导词:so…that,such…that…

特殊引导词:such that,to the degree that,to the extent that,to such a degree that…

He got up so early that he caught the first bus.
It’s such a good chance that we must not miss it.
To such a degree was he excited that he couldn’t sleep last night.

六、条件状语从句

常用引导词:if,unless,whether(whether…or not)

特殊引导词:as/so long as,only if,providing/provided that,supposing that,in case…

We’ll start our project if the president agrees.
You will certainly succeed so long as you keep on trying.
Provided that there is no opposition, we shall hold the meeting here.

七、让步状语从句

常用引导词:though,although,even if,even though

特殊引导词:in spite of the fact that,whatever,whoever,wherever,whenever,however

Much as I respect him, I can’t agree to his proposal.
The old man always enjoys swimming even though the weather is rough.
He won’t listen whatever you may say.

八、比较状语从句

常用引导词:as,than

特殊引导词:the more … the more …,just as …

She is as bad-tempered as her mother.
The more you exercise, the healthier you will be.
Food is to men what oil is to machine.

九、方式状语从句

常用引导词:as,as if…

特殊引导词:the way…

When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
She behaved as if she were the boss.
Sometimes we teach our children the way our parents have taught us.

 

 

从句概述

并列句不是从句

使用分号;冒号:破折号- 或者是“并列连词”FANBOYS连接的句子,都不是从句,而是并列句。

从句

使用从属连词连接的句子,才是从句

名词性从属连词:that, whether, what, how, when …
形容词性(定语)连词:that, which, who, when, where …
副词性(状语)连词:before, after, although, because …

复合句和复杂句

并列句和主从句都叫复合句

同时包含并列句和主从句的,叫复杂句

 

 

Conjunction

作用

三大虚词之一(冠词、连词、介词)。

连词的主要作用:连接 句子 和 句子

分类

第一种,纯正连词,它有实意,起连接作用,可称为“全职连词”,此类表达逻辑关系的连词,数量有限,且通常不可省略(一旦省略,一个句子就会出现两个以上谓语)。

第二种,有实意,但本身不是连词,主要是特殊疑问词,由于其通常出现在句首且非常好识别,所以它“兼职”了连词的作用,应用于特殊疑问句作名词性从句。

第三种,无实意,连接两个完整的句子,是被“借用”而来,充当连词,它包括that和某些特殊疑问词,应用于陈述句作名词性从句和定语从句。

连接副词不是连词

英语中有一类副词,它表达某种逻辑或时间关系,能够使上下文在语意方面连接得更顺畅。常见的有however,therefore,hence,accordingly,meanwhile,furthermore,besides,then等等。

总结

1.英文的连词承担重要的语法功能,是连接句子的重要方式,而中文的连词语法功能很小;

2.英文注重显性连接,句子的连接处需要很明显,所以I have
bought two ballpens, neither of them writes well.错误,而I have
bought two ballpens, neither of which writes well.正确;

3.连词和连接副词在语法层面有本质上的区别。

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adjective

作用

修饰名词,做定语

比较级,最高级

一般语法书都列出一条规则:最高级要加定冠词。其实,冠词是跟着名词走的。出现在名词短语中的形容词,它前面才有可能会有冠词出现。如果是表语或者补语的形容词,不存在名词短语中,自然也没有冠词的问题。例如:

Yangmingshan is crowded. 阳明山人潮汹涌。

Yangmingshan is most crowded in March. 三月的阳明山人最多。

形容词的位置

作定语的形容词通常都放在名词前面,但是有时也会后置。
eg. I met someone quite talkative at the party.

名词短语中的形容词顺序

关于这个语法点,旋元佑先生在《语法俱乐部》中总结得非常好:“一般语法书上在此只是列出一些大小、形状、颜色等等的顺序要求学生背下来,其实形容词顺序不必背,而有一定的道理可循。越是表达名词属性的形容词越要靠近名词。亦即,越是不可变的、客观的特征越要靠近名词。反之,越是可变的、临时的、主观的因素则要越要放的远离名词。”

以下两个示例及分析均摘自旋元佑《语法俱乐部》:

The murder left behind bloody old black Italian leather glove.

(凶手丢下一只沾血、老旧、黑色、意大利的皮手套。)

leather放得最近glove,因为leather是内容,glove是形式,内容与形式是不可分。就算手套剪碎了,皮革材料还在里面。表示产地的Italian也是属于不可变的因素。而且,an Italian glove(意大利手套)有相当强的表示属性的功能——告诉别人这是哪一种手套。至于说颜色black,在皮革染上黑色之后就不会变了。Old则是手套制成之后由新慢慢变旧的。至于bloody,原先没有沾血,行凶时沾上。只要拿去洗,随时可以变干净,旧则不能再变新了,所以bloody这个形容词和手套的属性最无关,也是最可变的修饰语,就要放在这一队形容词的最前面。再看一个例子:

He’s wearing a handsome old brown U.S. Air Force leather flying jacket.

(他身穿一件帅气、陈旧、褐色、美国空军皮质飞行夹克。)

这个例子提供读者依据上述原则去揣摩一下。提示handsome是主观的字眼。夹克帅不帅,见仁见智,所以handsome是和jacket的属性最无关的字眼。而flying jacket一定要放在一起才能表示“飞行夹克”,所以flying是表示这种夹克属性最强的字眼,要放得最接近。

可视作形容词的名词

当两个名词连用时,前一个名词通常起形容词作用,作定语。如 建设银行,pencil box。

Verb 动词

助动词:一般性助动词 + 情态动词

一般性助动词包括be,do和have。一般性助动词的作用是为主动词提供时态、语态与语气信息。

做助动词的be,do和have只有语法意义,没有实际意义,但一旦它们做谓语,通常有实际意义,请注意理解区别

了解主动词和助动词的区别有利于理解助动词的三个主要作用:

(1)与主动词的结合,为谓语提供时态、语态、语气等信息;

(2)通过“移动自身”即调整语序形成疑问语气;

(3)通过“否定”自身形成否定语气。

现代英语只保留了be动词人称的变化,而实意动词人称的变化基本只剩下“第三人称单数需要加s”这一条规则。

时态就是一般过去进行完成啥的。语态就是主动被动。语气就是陈述、疑问、否定、强调、感叹、祈使等,每个都是知识点

 

系动词

这类系动词有be动词,感官动词feel、look、sound、taste,类be动词seem与appear(表达含义和be动词接近,但是语气没有be动词肯定):
表达主语由一种状态/特征转变为另一种状态/特征,这类系动词有become,grow,turn,go等等:
表示主语维持某种状态/特征,这类系动词有remain,stay,keep,hold,continue等:
近似于不及物动词的系动词,这类动词有be born,die,married等,这类动词较少,读者只需理解即可:

情态动词

不能直接做谓语,只能和 动词原形 一起构成谓语

might(确定度30%),may,could,can,should,ought,would,will,must(确定度99%)

can (could), may (might), must, need, ought to, dare (dared), shall (should), will (would)

1.只做情态动词:may, might, must…
2.可做情态动词又可做实义动词:如:need, dare…
3.具有情态动词特征:have(had,has) to,used to, ought to
4.可做情态动词又可作助动词:如:shall(should),will(would)
情态动词无人称和数的变化,情态动词后面跟的动词须用原形,否定式构成是在情态动词后面加 “not”。个别情态动词有现在式和过去式两种形式,过去式用来表达更加客气,委婉的语气,时态性不强,可用于过去,现在或将来。情态动词属非及物动词,故没有被动语态。