语法:名词性从句

概览

主要有三个:主从,宾从,表从。补从,好像没听说过,是不是同位语?

连接词有三类:that,if/wether,特殊疑问词:what, why, when, where, who/whom, whose, which, how

that(无意义) + 简单句

可当主从、宾从、表从。放哪都好用。名词性从句的that几乎都可以省略。

The defendant said that he didn’t do it. 宾
The most important thing is that we’re all right. 表
That he didn’t show up on time is strange. 主
It’s strange that he didn’t show up on time. 同样是主语从句。这样比上面那样表达更好。

wether/if(是否) + 简单句

其实就是一个wether/if引导的一般疑问句做名词成分。
表“是否”只用whether,表“如果”只用if。

I don’t know whether the stock will improve (or not). 宾
My concern is whether the stock will improve (or not).表
Whether the stock will improve (or not) doesn’t bother me.主

特殊疑问词 引导

这就不是特殊疑问词+简单句了。也不是标准的特殊疑问句。

实际的操作是将疑问词还原(前移的疑问词如is就移回主语后面,凭空添加的疑问词如do就去掉)

What you eat depends on who you are.

What you love to eat doesn’t bother me. 主
I don’t care what you love to eat. 宾
What matters most is what you love to eat. 主,表

从句时态

和主句没关系,该是啥就是啥。虽然很多情况下,主从句时态是相同的。

 

同位语从句

同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具体内容。同位语从句通常由that引导,可用于同位语从句的名词有advice、demand、doubt、fact、hope、idea、information、message、news、order、problem、promise、question、request、suggestion、truth、wish、word等。例如:
The news that we won the game is exciting. 我们赢得这场比赛的消息令人激动。
I have no idea when he will come back home. 我不知道他什么时候回来。
The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill. 他想到可能玛丽生病了。
同位语从句和定语从句的区别:
that作为关系代词,可以引导定语从句,充当句子成分,在从句中作宾语时可以省略; that引导同位语从句时,起连词的作用,没有实际意义,不充当句子成分,一般不能省略。
试比较下面两个例句:
I had no idea that you were here.(that引导同位语从句,不能省略)
Have you got the idea(that)this book gives you of life in ancient Greece?(that引导定语从句,作宾语,可以省略)