语法:状语从句

概述

状语从句是三大从句中结构最简单的一个,它由一个有意义的、表达一定逻辑关系的从属连词+完整的简单句构成。

学习状语从句的重点是认识各个连接词,达到会认、会用的程度,不必纠结它属于八大类或者九大类状语从句的哪一种,所以其更接近词汇范畴而非语法范畴。但达到会认、会用各连接词也绝非一件容易之事,状语从句的连词多且杂,需要长时间的积累和消化。

位置

状语从句可以在主句之前或是之后。在之前,需要加逗号,来连接

一、时间状语从句

常用引导词:when,as,while,as soon as,before,after,since,not….until

特殊引导词:the minute,the moment,the second,every time,the day,the instant

二、地点状语从句

常用引导词:where

特殊引导词:wherever,anywhere,everywhere

三、原因状语从句

常用引导词:because,since,as,

特殊引导词:seeing that,now that,in that,considering that,given that.

Now that everybody has come, let’s begin our conference.
The higher income tax is harmful in that it may discourage people from trying to earn more.

四、目的状语从句

常用引导词:so that,in order that

特殊引导词:lest,in case,for fear that,in the hope that,for the purpose that

The boss asked the secretary to hurry up with the letters so that he could sign them.
The teacher raised his voice on purpose that the students in the back could hear more clearly.

五、结果状语从句

常用引导词:so…that,such…that…

特殊引导词:such that,to the degree that,to the extent that,to such a degree that…

He got up so early that he caught the first bus.
It’s such a good chance that we must not miss it.
To such a degree was he excited that he couldn’t sleep last night.

六、条件状语从句

常用引导词:if,unless,whether(whether…or not)

特殊引导词:as/so long as,only if,providing/provided that,supposing that,in case…

We’ll start our project if the president agrees.
You will certainly succeed so long as you keep on trying.
Provided that there is no opposition, we shall hold the meeting here.

七、让步状语从句

常用引导词:though,although,even if,even though

特殊引导词:in spite of the fact that,whatever,whoever,wherever,whenever,however

Much as I respect him, I can’t agree to his proposal.
The old man always enjoys swimming even though the weather is rough.
He won’t listen whatever you may say.

八、比较状语从句

常用引导词:as,than

特殊引导词:the more … the more …,just as …

She is as bad-tempered as her mother.
The more you exercise, the healthier you will be.
Food is to men what oil is to machine.

九、方式状语从句

常用引导词:as,as if…

特殊引导词:the way…

When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
She behaved as if she were the boss.
Sometimes we teach our children the way our parents have taught us.

 


以下是之前总结的,要和上面合并

 

Adverb clause using Adverb Conjunction(副词连词,还是连词)

In front of SUBJECT, and turn the sentence behind into a adverb clause.

Because of me, he study very hard. This is wrong : He because me study very hard.

⌈ I like him because he often help the poor.

Because he often help the poor, I like him. ⌋ Attention the [,]

When / Once / While / If / Though / Although

When he came I was singing. When 引导的叫状语从句

If clause SUBJECT is same as main sentence SUBJECT, hidden the SUBJECT of clause and set the Verb to present participle.

eg. When I saw him, I felt happy. = When seeing him, I fell happy .

eg. While I was in Beijing, I had a good time. = While being in Beijing, I had a good time.

eg. When I’m unhappy, I don’t feel like talking. = When unhappy, I don’t feel like talking

eg.When I have money, I’ll buy a car. = When having money, I’ll buy a car.

eg.If I am rich, I’ll buy a car. = If rich, I’ll buy a car.

eg.This is wrong : If having money, I’ll buy a car.

 

3.Conjunctive Adverb(这是副词,不是连词)

however / therefore / Thus

He is nice, so I like him.  =  He is nice; therefore, I like him. = He is nice; I , therefore, like him. = He is nice. Therefore, I like him.

This is wrong : He is nice, therefore I like him.

He is nice, but I don’t like him.  = He is nice; However, I don’t like him.