定语从句 – 形容词性

概述

形容词性,修饰名词

和状语从句一样,把疑问句的助动词还原。

后行词,就是把主语拆分成两部分,后面那部分的开头词汇。如:
This is the house where I was born.
拆分:1. This is the house. 2. In this house I was born.
后行词就是:In this house

位置

常规位置是在名词之前。定语从句的本质是从句作后置定语。(这不矛盾吗?)

who/whom

修饰人就用who/that。如果是宾格,也可以用“whom”,当然也能用who。但如果把介词提前,就必须用whom不能用who了。

He is the boy with whom I will go to shanghai.
I am looking for a man who is rich, cute and well-educated.

which/that

修饰事或者物就用which/that

The book which I am reading is written by Tomas Hardy.

Whose

修饰his,her,its,their,your one ‘s等等表示所属关系的词,用whose

He is the man whose car was stolen. = He is the man. His car was stolen.
You are the only one whose advice he might listen to.

Where

修饰地点

This is the house where I was born. = This is the house. In this house I was born.
This is the house that belongs to my brother. = This house belongs to my brother.
所以第二句用that,第一句用where

When

如果后行词是时间状语(通常是介词+表时间名词),就用when替换。

He came at a time when we needed help. = At that time we needed help.
He came at a time which was just perfect. = The time was just perfect.

Why

如果后行词是原因状语for this/that reason,就用why替换。

I knew the reason why he was late. = For this reason he was late.
The reason that he explained at the meeting was not acceptable. = He explained the reason at the meeting.

抽象时间地点,用where和when

Where可以替代抽象的地点状语、when可以代替抽象的时间状语,引导定语从句

English is a “fixed-word-order” language where each phrase has a fixed position. = In this language each phrase has a fixed position.
Life isn’t some musical cartoon where you sing a little song, and your insipid dreams magically come true! = In that cartoon you sing a little song, and your insipid dreams magically come true!
There are occasions when one must yield.(任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。) = One must yield on those occasions.

 


以下是之前总结的,要和上面合并

3.Who / Whom / Which(关系代词)

形容词从句,也就是句子变成了形容词。

形容词从句都是关系代词引导的?

1.关系代词前面一定要有先行词(先行词就是被关系代词指代的名词)。

2.关系代词在所引导的形容词从句中必须要当主语或是宾语。

eg. He is a student who studies hard. = He is a student. He study hard. = He is a student and he study hard.

eg. He is a teacher whom I respect. = He is a teacher. I respect him.

3.否则,关系代词前面一定有介词。

eg. He is a man with/for whom I enjoy working. = He is a man whom(可省略) I enjoy working with/for. = He is a man, whom(前面有,就不能省略) I enjoy working with/for.

4.Before word ‘that’, there can not have comma or preposition.’That’ can replace who/whom/which.

eg. He is a man (that=whom) we all respect.

eg. He is a man (that=who) never lies.

4.Sometimes must use THAT! Before the “that” have a ‘est’ or a ‘first second’ or  a ‘Who,Whom,Which’.

eg. He is the best student that I have ever taught.

eg. She is the most beautiful girl that I’v ever seen.

eg. That is the first thing that I’v do.

eg. Who’s the boy that(who) is talking to Marry?

eg.What is the thing that(which) you are using?

 

有[,]叫做非限定修饰,前面说的东西应该是专有名词,有特殊性。

eg. This is my father, who is nice to me.

eg. Here comes Marry, who is nice to me.

没有[,]叫做限定修饰

eg. This is a student who studies hard.

eg. He is a boy who is handsome and kind.

eg. This is a book which I enjoy reading. = This is a book that I enjoy reading.

eg. This is a good book,(这里的逗号可有可无) which I bought yesterday.

 

插入语:

He is a man who I think never lies. PS:插入语不影响关系代词的格

He is a man whom I think we should all respect.

He is a man who I think is nice.

He is a man whom I think to be nice. I think him to be nice.不定式做宾补

Whose(任何物都用whose)关系代词所有格:

可以引导形容词从句,用来连接两个句子

Mr. Mrs. Miss. Ms.

This is Mr. Wang; his daughter is my girlfriend.

This is Mr. Wang, and his daughter is my girlfriend.

This is Mr. Wang whose daughter is my girlfriend.

这三个都是对的。

This is Mr. Wang; I love his daughter.

This is Mr. Wang, and I love his daughter.

This is Mr. Wang, whose daughter I love very much.

This is Mr. Wang, whose daughter I’m familiar with.

以上都是对的

I just bought a book whose content is interesting.

I just bought a book, the content of which is interesting.

I just bought a book, of which the content is interesting.

虽然上面都是对的,但最好的还是用whose.

关系副词where when why how.

这四个都是介词+关系代词变过来的

–Where–

I was born in Nanjing, which I met Marry.这样是错的,因为which不是做主语,所以要加介词,像下面这样。

I was born in Nanjing, in which I met Marry.

I was born in Nanjing, where I met Marry.

I went to the station, at which I met John.

I went to the station, where I met John.

I went to the top of hill, on which I met Peter.

I went to the top of hill, where I met Peter.

–when–

I was born on May 22 1984, on which it was raining.

I was born on May 22, 1984, when it was raining.

I was born in May, in which it was getting warmer.

I was born in May, when it was getting warmer.

–why–

why和the reason并存,可以同时出现

I know the reason, which he resigned for.

I know the reason, why he resigned.

I know the reason he resigned.

I know why he resigned.

以上都对,基本上why最简单,只由the reason引出

–how–

how和the way并存,但不可以同时出现

I don’t like the way, in which he talks.

This is wrong : I don’t like the way ,how he talks.

I don’t like the way he talks.

 

准关系代词 than, as

than前面是名词

I have more money than you have.

I have more money than you do.(知识点:两个动词,用do代替后面的)

I have more money than do you.(do和you也可以倒过来,后面再讲)

than前面是名词,则than叫做关系代词,但又和传统关系代词(who, whom, which)不同,than=than + the + money + which

I have more money than the money which you do.

I have more money than is needed.

I have more money than needed.(is 可以省略)

More friends than had been invited came.

than = than the friend who

than前面不是名词,则than是连词

Mary is more beautiful than Jane.

John is a person amiable

AS

I have such a car as you do.

as = as the car which

I don’t like such people as lie.

I don’t like such a person as lies.

He is nice, but I don’t like him.

There is no one who does not like him.(who…not…可以用but代替)

There is no one but likes him.

There is no music which I am not fond of.

There is no music but I am fond of.