Grammar: Appositive

同位语
    在某⼀句⼦成分后⾯有另外的词、短语或从句(同位语从句)对该成分作进⼀步说明,在语法上⼜处于同⼀地位(即作同⼀个成分),称为同位语。
    ⼀、同位语在所说明的句⼦成分之后,其间没有逗号
  1. Unlike oxygen, the element nitrogen is not active. 与氧不同,元素氮不活泼。(unlike 为介词。)
  2. In today’s China, we returned students are able to do what we could not do before. 在今⽇的中国我们归国留学⽣能做过去不能做的事情。
  3. Thanks to the help of the experts they each all obtained great success. 多亏专家的帮助,他们各位都取得了很⼤的成功。(thanks to 为复合介词。)
  4. They are all familiar with TV home shopping. 他们都熟悉在家进⾏电视购物。(谓语是 be 时,all 挪后。)
    ⼆、同位语前后有逗号、冒号或破折号。
  1. Yesterday they each saw Dr.Fang, a senior engineer. 昨天他们各位都⻅到了⽅博⼠,他是⼀位⾼级⼯程师。
  2. The simplest atom, the hydrogen atom, contains one proton and one electron. 最简单的原⼦氢含有⼀个质⼦和⼀个电⼦。
  3. Henry is there, near the window. 亨利在那边,在窗⼾附近。
  4. The heat liberated during chemisorption is usually large, of order of the heat of chemical reaction. 化学吸附中放出的热量通常很⼤,与化学反应热不相上下。
  5. They make different types of computers, each with its characteristics. 他们制造各种型式的计算机,每种各有其⾃⼰的特点。
  6. Agnes will visit two cities: Beijing and Shanghai. 阿格尼丝将访问两个城市:北京和上海。
  7. We all have a common desire – to realize the four modernizations in China. 我们都有⼀个共同的愿望——在中国实现四个现代化。(注意不定式短语作同位语。)
    三、⽤ or 引出同位语
  1. The boiling temperature, or boiling point, is the temperature at which a liquid boils under ordinary pressure. 沸腾温度即沸点,系液体在常压下沸腾的温度。
  2. Under certain conditions this compound splits up, or decomposes, into two substances. 在⼀定条件下,该化合物就裂解即分解为两种物质。
  3. This weight equals one kilogram or 2.2046 pounds. 这个重量等于⼀公⽄即 2.2046 磅。
  4. The energy of electric current, or of electricity in motion, may be converted to any other form of energy. 电流的能量即动电的能量,可以转化为任何其它种能量。
    四、⽤ such as 或 as 引出同位语
  1. Some solid fuels, such as wood and coal, are chiefly composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 某些固体燃料,例如⽊头和煤,主要是由碳、氢和氧构成的。
  2. Some building materials such as cement and reinforcing bars are widely used in capital construction. 某些建筑材料,例如⽔泥和钢筋,⼴泛使⽤于基本建设中。
  3. Part of your job as a teacher is to really understand your pupils’ personal problems. 真正地了解你所教的学⽣的个⼈问题是你教师⼯作的⼀部分。(表⽰什么职业的⼯作引出同位语时,as前不要加such。)
  4. Plastics as a class are not suitable as materials to carry heavy structural loads. 塑料作为⼀类材料,并不适于作承受重型结构负荷的材料。(第⼀个 as 引出同位语,⽽第⼆个 as 则引出主语补语。)
    五、⽤ of 引出同位语,这时 of 前常是⼀个概括的名称,of 后是具体的东西或具体数值
  1. This automobile is running at a speed of 70 miles an hour. 该汽⻋正以每⼩时 70 英⾥的速度⾏驶。
  2. This liquid has a temperature of about 80℃. 该液体的温度为 80℃ 左右。(未按原⽂结构翻译)
  3. He worked in the city of Tianjin two years ago. 两年前他在天津市⼯作。
  4. Before Agnes there is a question of what to do first. 在阿格尼丝⾯前有⼀个先做什么的问题。
    六、⽤ namely, for example, including, particularly, that is (或i.e.) 等引出同位语
  1. There are two kinds of charges, namely, positive and negative (charges). 电荷有两种,即正电荷和负电荷。
  2. We have only one way of solving the difficulty, namely, to rely on our own efforts. 我们只有⼀条解决困难的途径,即依靠⾃⼰的努⼒。
  3. In China there are many cities, for example, Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin. 中国有许多城市,例如北京、上海和天津。
  4. Many of us, including Lin Hua, have been to Beijing zoo. 我们中间有许多⼈,包括林华在内,都去过北京动物园。
  5. I want to visit these modern factories, especially the one where you work. 我想参观这些现代化的⼯⼚,特别是你⼯作所在的那个⼚。
  6. Weight is directly related to the mass of a body, that is (或 i.e.), to the amount of matter in it. 重量是和物体的质量即物体内的物质数量直接有关的。
    七、⽤连词 that 等引出从句作同位语,称为同位语从句。有时省略that,造成难点
  1. This experiment leads to the conclusion that unlike charges attract each other. 这个实验导致这样⼀个结论:异性电荷相吸。
  2. The question “what are things made of?” is answered differently by different kinds of scientists. 物质由什么构成的问题,不同的科学家就有不同的答案。
  3. The modern approach to nature is to ask the more modest question, how things move, and to seek the answerin experiment. 现代对⾃然研究的⽅法是提出“物体是怎样运动的”这样⼀个⽐较恰如其分的问题,然后通过实验探索其答案。
  4. Then arose the question whom we should trust in. 那时就产⽣了我们应该相信谁的问题。
  5. There can be no doubt that man is certain to turn to the laboratories if nature does not provide stationarymaterials. 毫⽆疑问,如果⾃然界不能提供稳定的材料,⼈类⼀定会转向实验室。
  6. The fact that metals can be drawn into wires is known to us. ⾦属可以拔丝这⼀事实是我们都知道的。
  7. The thought came to him that the process should be conducted out of contact with the air. 他突然想起,该过程应该在不接触空⽓的情况下进⾏。
  8. Lisa told us the news, namely that the new shop would be open on and after next Sunday. 莉萨告诉我们⼀条消息,即这家新商店将从下星期⽇起开始营业。(注意同位语从句前加 namely.)
  9. Let me know your college address, that is, where you live in term time. 让我们知道你所在的学校地址,即你上学时所住的地⽅。(注意同位语从句前加插⼊句 that is。)
  10. Whenever the teacher mentioned my spelling mistakes in class, I had a feeling he was getting at me. 每当⽼师在课堂上提起我的拼写错误,我就有⼀种他在找我岔的感觉。(feeling 后省略了 that。)