Adverbials often indicate the verb in a sentence.
Here I only discuss the situation when adverbial indicate TIME, PLACE, REASON, RESULT, PURPOSE, CONDITION, DEGREE, PATTERN(方式), CONCESSION, and ACCOMPANY.
Time: The dust particles will soon settle down.
Place: In the box there are a pair of scissors, two pieces of glass, and so on.
Reason: A large amount of energy is wasted in machines due to friction. / Electricity is most widely used mainly because it is easily transmitted. (mainly 修饰后⾯整个原因状语从句。)
Purpose: The signs and symbols in mathematics are used for convenience.
Condition: Under proper conditions the speed of the machine will be slowed down. / Carbon unites with oxygen to form CO and CO2.
Degree: Your mobile phone is one centimeter longer than mine. (为什么不是one centimeter?) / Light wave length is only a few millionths of an inch long. / Your explanation is correct to some extent.
Pattern: The lamp is swinging back and forth.
Concession: In spite of the difficulties, we continued to do our test.
Accompany: The soldiers dashed forward, machine-gun in hand. / They were out working already.
- Light travels most quickly. 光传得最快。
- Enterprises of tertiary industries and Hi-tech companies are going up here and there. 第三产业企业和⾼科技公司到处都不断涌现出来。
- 《Computers》is difficult, but I like to study it all the more. 《计算机》难，但我仍然喜欢学。
- He is quite old; none the less he works like a young man. 他虽然很⽼了，但还像年轻⼈那样⼯作。
- We increased the production of steel last year. 去年我们增加了钢的产量。
- Work is done when a force acts on a body and moves it a certain distance. 当⼀个⼒作⽤于物体上并把它移动⼀定距离时，就作了功。
- The machine weighs 100 lb. 该机器重100磅。
- He reached the station 5 minutes later. 他晚到⻋站五分钟。（句中 5 minutes 说明副词 later。）
- The Yangtze River is world famous. ⻓江是世界闻名的。（句中 world 说明形容词 famous。）
- This X-ray apparatus has been in operation for two years. 该 X 光机已运⾏两年了。
- We should on no account (或 should not on any account) neglect our physical exercises. 我们决不应忽视体育锻炼。
- She will in no wise give up study. 她决不放弃学习。
- We do everything with the view (或 aim) of serving the people. 我们做⼀切事情，都抱着为⼈⺠服务的⽬的。
- With the first appearance of the sun, the birds begin to sing. 太阳⼀出，⻦就开始唱歌。
- At the thought of his words, they took courage and fought on. ⼀想到他的话，他们就有了勇⽓，并继续战⽃下去。
- He won’t go at all risks. 他不会冒⼀切危险前去。
- At all events, you ought not to stay here. ⽆论如何，你不应当留在这⾥。
- She is living at No. 305 in the Tianjin Hotel. 她住在天津饭店 305 号房间。
- He did it in a certain way. 他⽤某种⽅法办了这件事。
D. 动词不定式作状语（详⻅第 053 ⼆、Ⅶ）：
- (In order) To calculate the amount of work done, we multiply the force by the distance. 为了计算所作功的数值，我们将⼒乘以距离。（⽬的状语）
- CO combines with oxygen to form CO2. ⼀氧化碳和氧化合，便⽣成⼆氧化碳。（结果状语）
- It is too manifest to need a word of argument. 太明⽩了，⽆须说话解释。（程度状语）
- We are proud to have won first place. 我们因赢得第⼀⽽感到⾃豪。（原因状语）
注：有时甚⾄还⽤“名词+不定式”构成的复合结构作状语。例如：Here is the first volume, the second one to come out next month. 这⾥是第⼀卷，⽽第⼆卷下⽉问世。
E. 过去分词、现在分词短语（包括独⽴分词结构）作状语（详⻅第 37 节、⼀、Ⅵ 和Ⅶ. A. （a），第 54节、⼀Ⅳ、D 和 XIV、A ）。
- If there is a letter, you read it eagerly, pleased that your friend has thought of you. 假如有⼀封来信，你如饥似渴地读着信，并为你的朋友惦你⽽感到⾼兴。
- Starting with very simple equipment, they have produced a great number of transistors. 由简陋的设备起家（原义“着⼿”），他们已⽣产了⼤量晶体管。
- a. Seen from an aeroplane, this would look like a great green sea. 从⻜机上看，这像是⼀⼤⽚碧绿的海。
b. Looking from an aeroplane, you would see a great green sea. 从⻜机上看，你会看到⼀⼤⽚碧绿的海。（从a，b句中可看到句⾸分词和主语有语态关系。）
- Electrons being taken away，a body becomes charged. 由于移⾛了电⼦，物体就变为带电了。（独⽴分词结构）
- This (being) done, Joe went online. 这事做完后，乔就上⽹了。（同上）
- The test (being) over, we went to the computer center. 试验完毕后，我们就去计算机中⼼。（同上）
- Supper (being) ready, they came to the table. 晚餐准备好了，他们便向饭桌⾛去。（同上）
- The oil having been used up, the car stopped. 油⽤完后，汽⻋就停了下来。（同上）
- Being fatally ill, the boy was taken to the hospital. 那个男孩因病重被送往医院。
- John, fatally ill (=who was fatally ill), sent for a doctor. 约翰因病重派⼈去请医⽣。
- The scientists are searching, eager for truth. 科学家们为渴望真理⽽进⾏探索。
从上⾯第1、2句中可看出，这⾥的形容词短语是由前加 being 或由⾮限制性定语从句演变并紧缩⽽成的。现在它已可直接⽤作状语（⻅第 3 句）。
- When we are speaking of power, time is taken into account. 谈到功率时，我们已考虑了时间。（时间状语从句）
- There is air all around us although we cannot see it. 我们周围到处有空⽓，虽然我们看不⻅它。（让步状语从句）
- We can find out the amount of x because y and z are known quantities. 由于 y 和 z 是已知量，因此我们能求出x值。（原因状语从句）
- Seeing that (= Since) the chemical composition of matter remains unchanged, this is not a chemical change.既然物质的化学组成仍保持不变，这就不是化学变化。（原因状语从句）
- Once you begin, you must continue. ⼀旦开始，你就得继续下去。（条件状语从句）
- It is very difficult to live where there is little water. 在没有多少⽔的地⽅，⽣活是⼗分艰难的。（地点状语从句）
- We must strive for further progress in order that we may serve the people better. 我们必须继续求取进步，以便能更好地为⼈⺠服务。（⽬的状语从句）
- Just as the kilometer is the unit of length, so the ohm is the practical unit of resistance. 正像公⾥是⻓度的单位那样，欧姆就是电阻的实际单位。（⽅式状语从句）
- If we make a gap in the circuit the current will not be able to flow. 如果我们在电路⾥造成间隙，电流就不能流通。（条件状语从句）
- Through long power lines, electricity goes where (it is) needed. 电通过很⻓的电线，输送到需要电的地⽅。（地点状语从句）