Grammar: Adverbial

Adverbials often indicate the verb in a sentence.
Here I only discuss the situation when adverbial indicate TIME, PLACE, REASON, RESULT, PURPOSE, CONDITION, DEGREE, PATTERN(方式), CONCESSION, and ACCOMPANY.
Time: The dust particles will soon settle down.
Place: In the box there are a pair of scissors, two pieces of glass, and so on.
Reason: A large amount of energy is wasted in machines due to friction. /     Electricity is most widely used mainly because it is easily transmitted. (mainly 修饰后⾯整个原因状语从句。)
Purpose: The signs and symbols in mathematics are used for convenience.
Condition: Under proper conditions the speed of the machine will be slowed down.  / Carbon unites with oxygen to form CO and CO2.
Degree: Your mobile phone is one centimeter longer than mine. (为什么不是one centimeter?) / Light wave length is only a few millionths of an inch long.  / Your explanation is correct to some extent.
Pattern: The lamp is swinging back and forth.
Concession: In spite of the difficulties, we continued to do our test.
Accompany:  The soldiers dashed forward, machine-gun in hand. /   They were out working already. 
II. 状语表⽰法:
A. 副词及副词性词组作状语:
  1. Light travels most quickly. 光传得最快。
  2. Enterprises of tertiary industries and Hi-tech companies are going up here and there. 第三产业企业和⾼科技公司到处都不断涌现出来。
  3. 《Computers》is difficult, but I like to study it all the more. 《计算机》难,但我仍然喜欢学。
  4. He is quite old; none the less he works like a young man. 他虽然很⽼了,但还像年轻⼈那样⼯作。
B. 名词或名词性词组作状语:
  1. We increased the production of steel last year. 去年我们增加了钢的产量。
  2. Work is done when a force acts on a body and moves it a certain distance. 当⼀个⼒作⽤于物体上并把它移动⼀定距离时,就作了功。
  3. The machine weighs 100 lb. 该机器重100磅。
  4. He reached the station 5 minutes later. 他晚到⻋站五分钟。(句中 5 minutes 说明副词 later。)
  5. The Yangtze River is world famous. ⻓江是世界闻名的。(句中 world 说明形容词 famous。)
C. 介词短语作状语:
  1. This X-ray apparatus has been in operation for two years. 该 X 光机已运⾏两年了。
  2. We should on no account (或 should not on any account) neglect our physical exercises. 我们决不应忽视体育锻炼。
  3. She will in no wise give up study. 她决不放弃学习。
  4. We do everything with the view (或 aim) of serving the people. 我们做⼀切事情,都抱着为⼈⺠服务的⽬的。
  5. With the first appearance of the sun, the birds begin to sing. 太阳⼀出,⻦就开始唱歌。
  6. At the thought of his words, they took courage and fought on. ⼀想到他的话,他们就有了勇⽓,并继续战⽃下去。
  7. He won’t go at all risks. 他不会冒⼀切危险前去。
  8. At all events, you ought not to stay here. ⽆论如何,你不应当留在这⾥。
  9. She is living at No. 305 in the Tianjin Hotel. 她住在天津饭店 305 号房间。
  10. He did it in a certain way. 他⽤某种⽅法办了这件事。
D. 动词不定式作状语(详⻅第 053 ⼆、Ⅶ):
  1. (In order) To calculate the amount of work done, we multiply the force by the distance. 为了计算所作功的数值,我们将⼒乘以距离。(⽬的状语)
  2. CO combines with oxygen to form CO2. ⼀氧化碳和氧化合,便⽣成⼆氧化碳。(结果状语)
  3. It is too manifest to need a word of argument. 太明⽩了,⽆须说话解释。(程度状语)
  4. We are proud to have won first place. 我们因赢得第⼀⽽感到⾃豪。(原因状语)
注:有时甚⾄还⽤“名词+不定式”构成的复合结构作状语。例如:Here is the first volume, the second one to come out next month. 这⾥是第⼀卷,⽽第⼆卷下⽉问世。
E. 过去分词、现在分词短语(包括独⽴分词结构)作状语(详⻅第 37 节、⼀、Ⅵ 和Ⅶ. A. (a),第 54节、⼀Ⅳ、D 和 XIV、A )。
  1. If there is a letter, you read it eagerly, pleased that your friend has thought of you. 假如有⼀封来信,你如饥似渴地读着信,并为你的朋友惦你⽽感到⾼兴。
  2. Starting with very simple equipment, they have produced a great number of transistors. 由简陋的设备起家(原义“着⼿”),他们已⽣产了⼤量晶体管。
  3. a. Seen from an aeroplane, this would look like a great green sea. 从⻜机上看,这像是⼀⼤⽚碧绿的海。
    b. Looking from an aeroplane, you would see a great green sea. 从⻜机上看,你会看到⼀⼤⽚碧绿的海。(从a,b句中可看到句⾸分词和主语有语态关系。)
  4. Electrons being taken away,a body becomes charged. 由于移⾛了电⼦,物体就变为带电了。(独⽴分词结构)
  5. This (being) done, Joe went online. 这事做完后,乔就上⽹了。(同上)
  6. The test (being) over, we went to the computer center. 试验完毕后,我们就去计算机中⼼。(同上)
  7. Supper (being) ready, they came to the table. 晚餐准备好了,他们便向饭桌⾛去。(同上)
  8. The oil having been used up, the car stopped. 油⽤完后,汽⻋就停了下来。(同上)
F. ⽤逗号隔开的形容词短语作状语:
  1. Being fatally ill, the boy was taken to the hospital. 那个男孩因病重被送往医院。
  2. John, fatally ill (=who was fatally ill), sent for a doctor. 约翰因病重派⼈去请医⽣。
  3. The scientists are searching, eager for truth. 科学家们为渴望真理⽽进⾏探索。
从上⾯第1、2句中可看出,这⾥的形容词短语是由前加 being 或由⾮限制性定语从句演变并紧缩⽽成的。现在它已可直接⽤作状语(⻅第 3 句)。
G. 从句作状语:
  1. When we are speaking of power, time is taken into account. 谈到功率时,我们已考虑了时间。(时间状语从句)
  2. There is air all around us although we cannot see it. 我们周围到处有空⽓,虽然我们看不⻅它。(让步状语从句)
  3. We can find out the amount of x because y and z are known quantities. 由于 y 和 z 是已知量,因此我们能求出x值。(原因状语从句)
  4. Seeing that (= Since) the chemical composition of matter remains unchanged, this is not a chemical change.既然物质的化学组成仍保持不变,这就不是化学变化。(原因状语从句)
  5. Once you begin, you must continue. ⼀旦开始,你就得继续下去。(条件状语从句)
  6. It is very difficult to live where there is little water. 在没有多少⽔的地⽅,⽣活是⼗分艰难的。(地点状语从句)
  7. We must strive for further progress in order that we may serve the people better. 我们必须继续求取进步,以便能更好地为⼈⺠服务。(⽬的状语从句)
  8. Just as the kilometer is the unit of length, so the ohm is the practical unit of resistance. 正像公⾥是⻓度的单位那样,欧姆就是电阻的实际单位。(⽅式状语从句)
  9. If we make a gap in the circuit the current will not be able to flow. 如果我们在电路⾥造成间隙,电流就不能流通。(条件状语从句)
  10. Through long power lines, electricity goes where (it is) needed. 电通过很⻓的电线,输送到需要电的地⽅。(地点状语从句)