Gramma : Complement

补语是述补结构中补充说明述语的结果、程度、趋向、可能、状态、数量等的成分.
补语与述语之间是补充与被补充、说明与被说明的关系,是补充说明动词或形容词性中心语的,可以回答“怎么样”、“多少次”、“何处”、“何时”、 “什么结果”等问题.补语都放在中心语后头,除了趋向动词、数量词、介宾结构和一部分形容词可以直接作补语外.
补语多用形容词、数量词、趋向动词、介宾结构来担任,各种关系的词组也常作补语.
宾语补语
一、宾语补语的特点
    这类常⽤的及物动词有:make (使),consider (认为),cause (引起、使得),see (看⻅),find (发现),call (称为、叫做),get (让、使得),have(让、使得)let(开始、使…开始)等。
    “宾语+宾语补语”就称为复合宾语。
  1. Electricity can make a machine run. 电能使机器运转。
  2. We consider (或 think) the answer (to be) correct. 我们认为这个答案是正确的。
  3. Changes in temperature and pressure often cause matter to changes from one state to another. 温度和压⼒的变化,常引起物质从⼀种状态变为另⼀种状态。
  4. It is the reform and opening-up policy that is making China a powerful country. 就是这个改⾰开放政策正使中国变为⼀个强国。?这句没明白?
  5. I found the empty oil tank. 我发现这个空油箱。(定语)
  6. I found the oil tank empty. 我发现这个油箱是空的。(宾语补语)
二、宾语补语的表示法
    宾语补语在句中⼀般有九种表⽰法:
    Ⅰ.名词(或名词性物主代词);
    Ⅱ.形容词;
    Ⅲ.不定式;
    Ⅳ.现在分词;
    Ⅴ.过去分词;
    Ⅵ.As…;
    Ⅶ.介词短语;
    Ⅷ.副词;
    Ⅸ.从句。
    带有宾语补语的⼀般句型为:某些及物动词(如 make等)+ 直接宾语(名词或代词)+ 宾语补语
主语补语
    一、特点及表示法
    在带有主语补语的句中,谓语⼀般是被动语态。
    带有宾语补语的句⼦,改⽤被动语态表⽰时,则句中原来的宾语变为主语,原来说明直接宾语的宾语补语,就变成说明主语的主语补语。
    其表⽰法⼀般可概括如下:有关动词被动态+主语补语(⼀般可⽤下列七种形式表⽰)
    I. ⽤名词及其短语表⽰
  1. This process is called evaporation. 这种过程叫做蒸发。
  2. ⽐较:We call this process evaporation. 我们把这种过程称之为蒸发。(evaporation 为宾语补语)
  3. Evaporation is considered a physical process. 蒸发被认为是⼀种物理过程。
  4. He was elected monitor in our class. 他在我班被选为班⻓。
  5. This law is named(或 termed)Ohm’s law. 这个定律称为欧姆定律。
  6. He died a poor man.他死时很穷。(不是被动语态吧)
  7. He died a millionaire.他死的时候是个百万富翁.
    II. ⽤形容词及其短语表⽰
  1. Computers are considered very important to us. 计算机被认为对我们⾄关重要。
  2. ⽐较:People considercomputers very important to us. ⼈们认为计算机对我们⾄关重要。(宾语补语)
  3. The medicine must be kept dry. 这药品必须保持⼲燥。
  4. It has been made clear when the video conference will be held. 已明确宣布何时举⾏电视会议。(句中 when 引出主语从句,⽽前⾯ it 为形式主语。)
  5. He came in drunk.他走进来的时候醉醺醺的.
  6. They married young.他们结婚时还年轻.(不是被动语态吧)
  7. He died happy.他怀着幸福的0死去.(不是被动语态吧)
  8. No man is born wise.没有生而知之.(不是被动语态吧)
    III. ⽤动词不定式及其短语表⽰主语补语时,不定式动词前⾯都带 to。
  1. Oil is known to be in the liquid state. ⼤家知道油处于液态。(未按原⽂结构翻译)⽐较:We know oil to be in the liquid state. 我们知道油处于液态。(宾语补语)
  2. a. James was seen to buy the game software for his son. 有⼈看⻅詹姆⼠为他⼉⼦买了游戏软件。(未按原⽂结构翻译)
  3. b. Efforts were made by Linda to develop software. 琳达为开发软件作出了努⼒。(本句内不定式短语却表⽰⽬的状语。为此必须注意上下⽂。)
    Ⅳ. ⽤现在分词及其短语表⽰
  1. They were seen playing video games. 曾有⼈⻅到他们在玩电⼦游戏。(未按原⽂结构翻译)
  2. ⽐较:We saw them playing video games. 我们曾⻅到他们在玩电⼦游戏。(宾语补语)
  3. The boy was found sleeping on the ground this morning. 今天早晨有⼈发现这男孩睡在地上。(意译)
    V. ⽤过去分词及其短语表⽰
  1. Sulfur is found combined with many metals. 硫被发现同许多⾦属化合在⼀起。(主语补语)
  2. ⽐较:We find sulfur combined with many metals. 我们发现硫同许多⾦属化合在⼀起. (宾语补语)
  3. The information industries are found well developed in our country. ⼈们发现信息产业在我国得到很好发展。
    Ⅵ. ⽤ as 引出主语补语
  1. This maybe taken as (being) a result of the revolution in computer hardware. 这可以当作是计算机硬件⾰新的⼀种结果。
  2. ⽐较:We may take this as a result of the revolution in computer hardware. 我们可以把这当作计算机硬件⾰新的⼀种结果。(宾语补语)
  3. This law is known as (或 is referred to as) the law of the sea. 这个法律通称为海洋法。
  4. Electric current may be looked on as (或 seen as 或 regarded as) being a flow of electrons through a medium.电流可以被视为电⼦在介质中的流动。(句中 being 可省略. )
  5. Water can be shown as containing impurities. 可以证明⽔含有杂质。(原义:⽔是可以被证明含有杂质的。)
  6. An atom may be thought of as made up of nucleus and electrons. 原⼦可以被认为是由原⼦核和电⼦所组成的。
    Ⅶ. ⽤介词短语表⽰
  1. Petroleum is considered of much use for our chemical industry. ⽯油被认为对我们的化学⼯业⼤有⽤处。
  2. Your medicine must be kept in the original. 你的药必须保持原状。
  3. One layer of liquid was found past another. 发现有⼀层液体超越另⼀层液体。
表语 Predicative:
    表语是用来说明主语的身份、性质、品性、特征和状态的,表语常由名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、不定式、动词的-ing、从句来充当
    简单来说,表语是用来说明主语的,而宾语很多情况是主语的对象
    表语的本质是主语补语
一. 名词作表语
    Africa is a big continent.非洲是个大洲.
    That remains a puzzle to me.这对我还是个难题.
二. 代词作表语
    What’s your fax number?    你的传真号是多少?
三. 形容词作表语
    I feel much better today. 我今天感觉好多了.
    TV home shopping is popular here this year.
四. 数词作表语
    She was the first to learn about it.她是第一个知道的人.
五. 不定式或ing形式作表语
    Her job is selling computers.她的工作是销售电脑.
    Our next step was to get raw materials ready.我们下一步是把原料准备好.
六. 介词短语作表语
    The patient is out of danger.病人脱险了.
    I don’t feel at ease.我感到不自在.
七. 副词作表语
    The sun is up.太阳升起来了.
    I must be off now.现在我得走了.
八. 从句作表语
    This is what he said.这就是他所说的话.