Noun, Verb, Adjective changing rules

The plural form of nouns 名词复数

1.add -s | 1.清辅音后/s/;2.浊辅音和元音后 /z/; | bags, maps, cars

2.”s, sh, ch, x” add -es |  /iz/ | bus-buses, watch-watches

3.”ce, se, ze, (d)ge” add -s | 读/iz/ | license-licenses

4.”consonant+y” change “y” to “i” and add -es | /z/ | baby-babies

5.Proper nouns or vowel+y add -s | two Marys, the Henrys, monkeys, holidays

6.”o”:
–1.add -s | photos, pianos, radios, zoos, zeros
–2.add -es | potatoes, tomatoes

7.”f, fe”:
–1. add -s | beliefs, roofs, safes, gulfs
–2. change “f, fe” to “ves” | half-halves, knife-knives, leaf-leaves, wolf-wolves, wife-wives, life-lives, thief-thieves, handkerchief-handkerchieves

8.”oo” change to “ee” | foot-feet, tooth-teeth

9.same | deer, sheep, fish

10.special | child-children, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, mouse-mice, man-men, woman-women

名词所有格

加’s, s结尾只加’, 有特例什么都不加但要用of连接

Gerund 动名词

1.add -ing

2.”e” does not pronounce | del “e” add -ing | take-taking, make-making, dance-dancing

3.Stressed Closed Syllables | double last letter and add -ing | cut-cutting, put-putting, begin-beginning

4.”ie” | change “ie” to “y” add -ing | lie-lying, tie-tying, die-dying

Past tense and Past participle 过去式、分词

1. add -ed

2.”e” does not pronounce | add -d | lived moved decided declined hoped judged raised wiped

3.”consonant+y” change “y” to “i” and add -ed | studied tried copied justified cried carried embodied emptied

4.Stressed Closed Syllables | double last letter and add -ed| stopped begged fretted dragged dropped planned dotted dripped

5.special | go-went, make – made get – got buy – bought come – came fly-flew

Third person singular verb动词第三人称单数

1.add -s

2.”s, x, ch, o” add -es;如:guesses, fixes, teach—teaches, brush—brushes, go—goes,do—does,watch—watches,catch—catches

3.”consonant+y” change “y” to “i” and add -es | study-studies, carry-carries, fly-flies, worry-worries

形容词、副词比较级和最高级

第一,规则变化

1. 现在词尾加-er/est.

eg:tall-taller-tallest

warm-warmer-warmest

quiet-quieter-quietest

2. 以字母e结尾的词,在词尾加-r/-st.

eg: late-later-latest

fine-finer-finest

large-larger-largest

close-closer-closest

3. 以辅音字母加-y结尾的双音节词,先把“y”改为“i”,再加-er/-est.

eg: easy-easier-easiest

early-earlier-earliest

funny-funnier-funniest

friendly-friendlier-friendliest

busy-busier-busiest

4. 以只有一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节词,先双写辅音字母再加-er/-est.

eg: big-bigger-biggest

hot-hotter-hottest

wet-wetter-wettest

fat-fatter-fattest

thin-thinner-thinnest

5. 多音节词,在词尾加-more/-most.

eg: beautiful-more beautiful-most beautiful

serious-more serious-most serious

outgoing-more outgoing-most outgoing

6.特殊

little-less-least