Noun and Verb changing rule

The plural form of nouns

1.add -s | 1.清辅音后/s/;2.浊辅音和元音后 /z/; | bags, maps, cars

2.”s, sh, ch, x” add -es |  /iz/ | bus-buses, watch-watches

3.”ce, se, ze, (d)ge” add -s | 读/iz/ | license-licenses

4.”consonant+y” change “y” to “i” and add -es | /z/ | baby-babies

5.Proper nouns or vowel+y add -s | two Marys, the Henrys, monkeys, holidays

–1.add -s | photos, pianos, radios, zoos, zeros
–2.add -es | potatoes, tomatoes

7.”f, fe”:
–1. add -s | beliefs, roofs, safes, gulfs
–2. change “f, fe” to “ves” | half-halves, knife-knives, leaf-leaves, wolf-wolves, wife-wives, life-lives, thief-thieves, handkerchief-handkerchieves

8.”oo” change to “ee” | foot-feet, tooth-teeth

9.same | deer, sheep, fish

10.special | child-children, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, mouse-mice, man-men, woman-women


1.add -ing

2.”e” does not pronounce | del “e” add -ing | take-taking, make-making, dance-dancing

3.Stressed Closed Syllables | double last letter and add -ing | cut-cutting, put-putting, begin-beginning

4.”ie” | change “ie” to “y” add -ing | lie-lying, tie-tying, die-dying

Past tense and Past participle of Verb

1. add -ed

2.”e” does not pronounce | add -d | lived moved decided declined hoped judged raised wiped

3.”consonant+y” change “y” to “i” and add -ed | studied tried copied justified cried carried embodied emptied

4.Stressed Closed Syllables | double last letter and add -ed| stopped begged fretted dragged dropped planned dotted dripped

5.special | go-went, make – made get – got buy – bought come – came fly-flew

The third person singular verb

1.add -s

2.”s, x, ch, o” add -es;如:guesses, fixes, teach—teaches, brush—brushes, go—goes,do—does,watch—watches,catch—catches

3.”consonant+y” change “y” to “i” and add -es | study-studies, carry-carries, fly-flies, worry-worries