How do we combine two sentences?

There are 2 ways to combine two sentences : Punctuation and Conjunction.

1.Punctuation

1.semicolon  [;]

eg. He is a good student; he studies hard every day. I like him. //semicolon connect two related sentence.

2.dash [–] (press [ALT]+[-_] to type it on Mac) 

eg. He is a good student – he studies hard every day.  I like him. //dash connect two related sentence too.

2.Conjunction

Fist of all : This is wrong : Because he is a good student, so I like him very much.

Conjunction expressed a parallel or logic relationship.

Look at following 3 sentence:

He is a good student, so/and I like him very much.

I like him very much because he is a good student.(In front of because have no comma[,])

Because he is a good student, I like him very much.

He succeeded both because of his intelligence and because of his hard work.

Even though / Though / Although he is nice, (yet) I don’t like him.(yet in here is a adverb, although it’s right, but suggest don’t use it like this.)

and / or / but / not but: connect same things.

eg. He failed because he was lazy and because he was selfish. = He failed because he was lazy and selfish.

eg. Is she kind or stingy/mean?

eg. He is nice, but I don’t like him.

eg. He’s failed not because lazy but selfish.

as well as / rather than

eg. Peter as well as I is fun of music.

eg. Peter rather than I is fun of music. = Peter, not I, is fun of music.

eg. He is ugly rather than handsome. = He is ugly, not handsome.

not… but… / not only… but also… / either… or… / neither… nor…

eg. Not he but I am wrong.

eg. Not only he but also I am wrong.

eg. Either he or you are wrong.

eg. Neither you nor he is wrong.

3.Clause

Clause can NOT exist alone.

 

The Clause comes in 3 kinds :

(This is my classification method)

Adverb clause

Noun clause

The noun clause comes in 3 kinds:

代词: that

whether

疑问词:why, when, where,

Adjective clause

Adverb clause using Adverb Conjunction(副词连词,还是连词)

In front of SUBJECT, and turn the sentence behind into a adverb clause.

Because of me, he study very hard. This is wrong : He because me study very hard.

⌈ I like him because he often help the poor.

Because he often help the poor, I like him. ⌋ Attention the [,]

When / Once / While / If / Though / Although

When he came I was singing. When 引导的叫状语从句

If clause SUBJECT is same as main sentence SUBJECT, hidden the SUBJECT of clause and set the Verb to present participle.

eg. When I saw him, I felt happy. = When seeing him, I fell happy .

eg. While I was in Beijing, I had a good time. = While being in Beijing, I had a good time.

eg. When I’m unhappy, I don’t feel like talking. = When unhappy, I don’t feel like talking

eg.When I have money, I’ll buy a car. = When having money, I’ll buy a car.

eg.If I am rich, I’ll buy a car. = If rich, I’ll buy a car.

eg.This is wrong : If having money, I’ll buy a car.

 

3.Conjunctive Adverb(这是副词,不是连词)

however / therefore / Thus

He is nice, so I like him.  =  He is nice; therefore, I like him. = He is nice; I , therefore, like him. = He is nice. Therefore, I like him.

This is wrong : He is nice, therefore I like him.

He is nice, but I don’t like him.  = He is nice; However, I don’t like him.

 

 

3.Who / Whom / Which(关系代词)

形容词从句,也就是句子变成了形容词。

形容词从句都是关系代词引导的?

1.关系代词前面一定要有先行词(先行词就是被关系代词指代的名词)。

2.关系代词在所引导的形容词从句中必须要当主语或是宾语。

eg. He is a student who studies hard. = He is a student. He study hard. = He is a student and he study hard.

eg. He is a teacher whom I respect. = He is a teacher. I respect him.

3.否则,关系代词前面一定有介词。

eg. He is a man with/for whom I enjoy working. = He is a man whom(可省略) I enjoy working with/for. = He is a man, whom(前面有,就不能省略) I enjoy working with/for.

4.Before word ‘that’, there can not have comma or preposition.’That’ can replace who/whom/which.

eg. He is a man (that=whom) we all respect.

eg. He is a man (that=who) never lies.

4.Sometimes must use THAT! Before the “that” have a ‘est’ or a ‘first second’ or  a ‘Who,Whom,Which’.

eg. He is the best student that I have ever taught.

eg. She is the most beautiful girl that I’v ever seen.

eg. That is the first thing that I’v do.

eg. Who’s the boy that(who) is talking to Marry?

eg.What is the thing that(which) you are using?

 

有[,]叫做非限定修饰,前面说的东西应该是专有名词,有特殊性。

eg. This is my father, who is nice to me.

eg. Here comes Marry, who is nice to me.

没有[,]叫做限定修饰

eg. This is a student who studies hard.

eg. He is a boy who is handsome and kind.

eg. This is a book which I enjoy reading. = This is a book that I enjoy reading.

eg. This is a good book,(这里的逗号可有可无) which I bought yesterday.

 

插入语:

He is a man who I think never lies. PS:插入语不影响关系代词的格

He is a man whom I think we should all respect.

He is a man who I think is nice.

He is a man whom I think to be nice. I think him to be nice.不定式做宾补

Whose(任何物都用whose)关系代词所有格:

可以引导形容词从句,用来连接两个句子

Mr. Mrs. Miss. Ms.

This is Mr. Wang; his daughter is my girlfriend.

This is Mr. Wang, and his daughter is my girlfriend.

This is Mr. Wang whose daughter is my girlfriend.

这三个都是对的。

This is Mr. Wang; I love his daughter.

This is Mr. Wang, and I love his daughter.

This is Mr. Wang, whose daughter I love very much.

This is Mr. Wang, whose daughter I’m familiar with.

以上都是对的

I just bought a book whose content is interesting.

I just bought a book, the content of which is interesting.

I just bought a book, of which the content is interesting.

虽然上面都是对的,但最好的还是用whose.

关系副词where when why how.

这四个都是介词+关系代词变过来的

–Where–

I was born in Nanjing, which I met Marry.这样是错的,因为which不是做主语,所以要加介词,像下面这样。

I was born in Nanjing, in which I met Marry.

I was born in Nanjing, where I met Marry.

I went to the station, at which I met John.

I went to the station, where I met John.

I went to the top of hill, on which I met Peter.

I went to the top of hill, where I met Peter.

–when–

I was born on May 22 1984, on which it was raining.

I was born on May 22, 1984, when it was raining.

I was born in May, in which it was getting warmer.

I was born in May, when it was getting warmer.

–why–

why和the reason并存,可以同时出现

I know the reason, which he resigned for.

I know the reason, why he resigned.

I know the reason he resigned.

I know why he resigned.

以上都对,基本上why最简单,只由the reason引出

–how–

how和the way并存,但不可以同时出现

I don’t like the way, in which he talks.

This is wrong : I don’t like the way ,how he talks.

I don’t like the way he talks.

 

准关系代词 than, as

than前面是名词

I have more money than you have.

I have more money than you do.(知识点:两个动词,用do代替后面的)

I have more money than do you.(do和you也可以倒过来,后面再讲)

than前面是名词,则than叫做关系代词,但又和传统关系代词(who, whom, which)不同,than=than + the + money + which

I have more money than the money which you do.

I have more money than is needed.

I have more money than needed.(is 可以省略)

More friends than had been invited came.

than = than the friend who

than前面不是名词,则than是连词

Mary is more beautiful than Jane.

John is a person amiable

AS

I have such a car as you do.

as = as the car which

I don’t like such people as lie.

I don’t like such a person as lies.

He is nice, but I don’t like him.

There is no one who does not like him.(who…not…可以用but代替)

There is no one but likes him.

There is no music which I am not fond of.

There is no music but I am fond of.