A very basic sentence is composed of a least two parts. One is the SUBJECT, and the other is A VERB.
First,We talk about the SUBJECT
1. SUBJECT must use NOUN. Even can use Pronoun, Infinitive, Gerund or noun clause. But all in all , they are NOUN.
2. When Subject is an Infinitive or An Gerund phrase. The different between Infinitive and Gerund is that Infinitive mean haven’t happen yet and Gerund means already had happened.
3. There is 3 ways to make a Noun clause : That, Whether and Interrogative pronouns 疑问代词
1. Declarative sentence use that.eg:
That he loves me is true.
2. General question 一般疑问句 use whether.(General question is a sentence Only use YES or NO to answer)eg:
Whether she is beautiful remains to be seen.
Whether she will com remains to be seen.
3. Special interrogative sentences 特殊疑问句 use interrogative pronouns 疑问代词 [except WHY].eg:
Where he will go is a mystery.
What he will do still a question.
4.If the SUBJECT is too long. We can use ‘it’ instead, and then put the long part into the end of the sentence.eg:
It makes me angry that he didn’t agree with me.
It remains to be seen whether she is beautiful.
It is a mystery where he will go.
5. What is the noun parse 名词短语? All noun parse are simplyfy from a interrogative sentence. eg:
where to go.
what to do.
6. Some preposition phrase can also be used as SUBJECT.eg:
From Beijing to Guangzhou is a long distance.
From 1990 till 2010 is a long period time.
Second, We talk about VERB
1. The SUBJECT MUST be followed by VERB.
2. The Verb comes in 5 kinds: Complete Intransitive, Incomplete Intransitive, Complete Transitive, Incomplete Transitive and Dative 完全/不完全 及物/不及物 与格
Attention: Some Verb has many meanings, some meanings are VI, but some are VT.
3. How to judge a word is Transitive or Intransitive?
I ___ it. + It 被 I ___ .
I love it. It 被 I love. OK
He happey an accident. An accident 被 I happen. 后半句不OK
I run It. It 被 I run. 前后两句都不OK.
I run marathon. Marathon 被 I run. 前后都通。
I run(经营) a company. A company 被 I run.
4. There are 5 kinds of basic sentence: SV, SVC, SVO, SVOC, SVOO.Each sentence corresponds to each verb.
S:Subject, V:Verb, O:Object, C:Complement, B:Be, G:Gerund, P: Past Participle, I:Infinitive
SV -> Complete Intransitive
SVC -> Incomplete Intransitive 主系表（C在这里叫做表语，其实本质还是补语）
SVO -> Complete Transitive
SVOC -> InComplete Transitive 主谓宾补（C是补语）
SVOO -> Dative
5. SV / SBG : eg.
He was dancing.
He fainted when he heard the bad news.
6.SVC: Most of the time, C is an adjective or noun. eg.
V not only ‘am/is/are’, also can be :
I become a doctor.
I became knowledgeable.
She became beautiful.
He is a doctor.
He is handsome.
He is happy.
I look/sound/smell/taste/fell sad.
7.SVO主谓宾 / SBGO（主谓宾的进行时） / SBP（被动语态）: eg.
I love her.
I am loving her.
She is loved.
I want/plan to see him.
I enjoy dancing.
Common verbs in SVOC have : call, have, let, make, cause …
as call:(VERB must use prototype)
I have him wash the car
as let:(VERB must use prototype)
I’ll let him sing a song
I’ll push him .
That story cause me cry.
I make him happy.
Dative verb: give, ask, buy, rob, expect, require, demand, lend, teach,
SVO (to/for/of/from) O
I gave him a car.
I ask him a question.
I gave a car to him.
I buy a car for him.
I asked him a question.
I asked a question of him.
He robbed me of my money. That’s wrong:
He robbed my money of me.
10.How to distinguish Incomplete VI and Complete VT?
Incomplete VI can add an adjective, Complete VT can’t.
When I see a Be, What is it mean?
1.It may SVC. I am man. You are Tom. He is handsome.
2.It may continuous tense. I am singing. He was dancing. You will be going to school tomorrow.
3.It may Passive Voice. She is loved. She is loved by him.