[Sentence] How a sentence make?

A very basic sentence is composed of a least two parts. One is the SUBJECT, and the other is A VERB.

First,We talk about the SUBJECT

1. SUBJECT must use NOUN. Even can use Pronoun, Infinitive, Gerund or noun clause. But all in all , they are NOUN.

2. The different between Infinitive and Gerund is that Infinitive mean haven’t happen yet and Gerund means already had happened.

3. There is 3 ways to make a Noun clause : That, Whether and Interrogative pronouns

1. Declarative sentence use that.eg:

That he loves me is true.

2. General question use whether.(General question is a sentence Only use YES or NO  to answer)eg:

Whether she is beautiful remains to be seen.
Whether she will com remains to be seen.

3. Special interrogative sentences use interrogative pronouns[except WHY].eg:

Where he will go is a mystery.
What he will do still a question.

4.If the SUBJECT is too long. We can use ‘it’ instead, and then put the long part into the end of the sentence.eg:

It makes me angry that he didn’t agree with me.
It remains to be seen whether she is beautiful.
It is a mystery where he will go.

5.What is noun parse? eg:

where to go.
what to do.

6.Some preposition phrase can also be used as SUBJECT.eg:

From Beijing to Guangzhou is a long distance.
From 1990 till 2010 is a long period time.

Second, We talk about VERB

1.The SUBJECT MUST be followed by VERB.

2.The Verb comes in 5 kinds: Complete Intransitive, Incomplete Intransitive, Complete Transitive, Incomplete Transitive and Dative

Attention: Some Verb has many meanings, some meanings are VI, but some are VT.

3.How to judge a word is Transitive or Intransitive?

I ___ it.  +  It 被 I ___ .

4.There are 5 kinds of basic sentence: SV, SVC, SVO, SVOC, SVOO.Each sentence corresponds to each verb.

S:Subject, V:Verb, O:Object, C:Complement, B:Be, G:Gerund, P: Past Participle, I:Infinitive

SV -> Complete Intransitive

SVC -> Incomplete Intransitive

SVO -> Complete Transitive

SVOC -> InComplete Transitive

SVOO -> Dative

5. SV / SBG : eg.

He danced.

He was dancing.

He fainted.

I know.

He fainted when he heard the bad news.

6.SVC :  Most of time, C is an adjective or noun. eg.

V not only ‘am/is/are’, also can be :

look 看起来是
sound 听起来是
smell
taste
feel 摸起来是
seen 似乎是
appear 显得是
turn 转变为
prove 证实为
become 成为
make 做为

I become a doctor.

I became knowledgeable.

She became beautiful.

He is a doctor.

He is handsome.

He is happy.

I look/sound/smell/taste/fell sad.

7.SVO / SBGO / SBP:  eg.

I love her.

I am loving her.

She is loved.

I want/plan to see him.

I enjoy dancing.

8.SVOC :

Common verbs in SVOC have : call, have, let, make, cause

as call:(VERB must use prototype)

I have him wash the car

as let:(VERB must use prototype)

I’ll let him sing a song

as force:

I’ll push him .

That story cause me cry.

I make him happy.

9.SVOO:

Dative verb: give, ask, buy, rob, expect, require, demand, lend, teach,

eg:

SVO (to/for/of/from) O

I gave him a car.

I ask him a question.

I gave a car to him.

I buy a car for him.

I asked him a question.

I asked a question of him.

He robbed me of my money. That’s wrong:He robbed my money of me.

10.How to distinguish Incomplete VI and Complete VT?

Incomplete VI can add an adjective, Complete VT can’t.

Third summary

When I see a Be, What is it mean?

1.It may SVC. I am man. You are Tom. He is handsome.

2.It may continuous tense. I am singing. He was dancing. You will be going to school tomorrow.

3.It may Passive Voice. She is loved. She is loved by him.