A very basic sentence is composed of a least two parts. One is the SUBJECT, and the other is A VERB.
First,We talk about the SUBJECT
1. SUBJECT must use NOUN. Even can use Pronoun, Infinitive, Gerund or noun clause. But all in all , they are NOUN.
2. The different between Infinitive and Gerund is that Infinitive mean haven’t happen yet and Gerund means already had happened.
3. There is 3 ways to make a Noun clause : That, Whether and Interrogative pronouns
1. Declarative sentence use that.eg:
That he loves me is true.
2. General question use whether.(General question is a sentence Only use YES or NO to answer)eg:
Whether she is beautiful remains to be seen.
Whether she will com remains to be seen.
3. Special interrogative sentences use interrogative pronouns[except WHY].eg:
Where he will go is a mystery.
What he will do still a question.
4.If the SUBJECT is too long. We can use ‘it’ instead, and then put the long part into the end of the sentence.eg:
It makes me angry that he didn’t agree with me.
It remains to be seen whether she is beautiful.
It is a mystery where he will go.
5.What is noun parse? eg:
where to go.
what to do.
6.Some preposition phrase can also be used as SUBJECT.eg:
From Beijing to Guangzhou is a long distance.
From 1990 till 2010 is a long period time.
Second, We talk about VERB
1.The SUBJECT MUST be followed by VERB.
2.The Verb comes in 5 kinds: Complete Intransitive, Incomplete Intransitive, Complete Transitive, Incomplete Transitive and Dative
Attention: Some Verb has many meanings, some meanings are VI, but some are VT.
3.How to judge a word is Transitive or Intransitive?
I ___ it. + It 被 I ___ .
4.There are 5 kinds of basic sentence: SV, SVC, SVO, SVOC, SVOO.Each sentence corresponds to each verb.
S:Subject, V:Verb, O:Object, C:Complement, B:Be, G:Gerund, P: Past Participle, I:Infinitive
SV -> Complete Intransitive
SVC -> Incomplete Intransitive
SVO -> Complete Transitive
SVOC -> InComplete Transitive
SVOO -> Dative
5. SV / SBG : eg.
He was dancing.
He fainted when he heard the bad news.
6.SVC : Most of time, C is an adjective or noun. eg.
V not only ‘am/is/are’, also can be :
I become a doctor.
I became knowledgeable.
She became beautiful.
He is a doctor.
He is handsome.
He is happy.
I look/sound/smell/taste/fell sad.
7.SVO / SBGO / SBP: eg.
I love her.
I am loving her.
She is loved.
I want/plan to see him.
I enjoy dancing.
Common verbs in SVOC have : call, have, let, make, cause …
as call:(VERB must use prototype)
I have him wash the car
as let:(VERB must use prototype)
I’ll let him sing a song
I’ll push him .
That story cause me cry.
I make him happy.
Dative verb: give, ask, buy, rob, expect, require, demand, lend, teach,
SVO (to/for/of/from) O
I gave him a car.
I ask him a question.
I gave a car to him.
I buy a car for him.
I asked him a question.
I asked a question of him.
He robbed me of my money. That’s wrong:
He robbed my money of me.
10.How to distinguish Incomplete VI and Complete VT?
Incomplete VI can add an adjective, Complete VT can’t.
When I see a Be, What is it mean?
1.It may SVC. I am man. You are Tom. He is handsome.
2.It may continuous tense. I am singing. He was dancing. You will be going to school tomorrow.
3.It may Passive Voice. She is loved. She is loved by him.