who/whom, which, what, whose
when, where, why, how
therefore, besides, otherwise, however, moreover, still, thus, meanwhile
English is a “stress-timed rhythm” langue but not a “syllables-timed rhythm” langue .
Content words (emphasized)
Structure words (de-emphasized)
nouns (cat, book, Mary)
main verbs (make, run, study)
adjectives (good, happy, many)
adverbs (quickly, often, really)
(who, what, when, where, how, why)
(this, that, these, those)
pronouns (he, she, it, they)
prepositions (in, on, of, at)
articles (a, an, the)
“to-be” verbs (am, is, are, was)
“to-have” verbs (has, have, had)
conjunctions (and, but, so, since)
auxiliary verbs (do, can, may, will)
IMPORTANT:Negative words and negative “to-be,” “to-have,” and auxiliary verbs need to be stressed. ( e.g., no, never, isn’t, haven’t, can’t, don’t, won’t)
Any word in English can be a focus in a message. You can focus on a noun, a verb, an adjective, an adverb, a preposition, or an auxiliary.
The speaker uses focus to emphasize a certain part of his/her message. The use of focus can indicate the speaker’s intended meaning of a message. The focused word needs to be stressed, so it is louder, longer, and higher pitched than other words in a message.
Do you know where to pause in sentences to form thought groups?
We usually pause
1. before punctuation marks ( , . ; : ? ! )
2. before conjunctions (and, or, but, which, that, since…)
3. between grammatical units such as phrases, clauses, and sentences.
eg：Once upon a starless midnight / there was an owl / who sat on the branch of an oak tree./Two ground moles / tried to slip by, / unnoticed. / “You!” / said the owl. /”Who?” / they quavered, / in fear and astonishment, / for they could not believe /it was possible / for anyone to see them / in that thick darkness./
Mr. Smith, our new teacher, is very kind to us.
Yesterday I met Tom, a friend of my brothers’.
He told me that his brother John was a world-famous doctor.
We Chinese people are brave and hard-working.
He is interested in sports, especially ball games.sports和ball games是同位语
At the very moment，the telephone rang．
I myself will see her off at the station.
You can do it well yourself.
He does speak（演讲） well!
He did come but soon went back.
4.用短语in every way，in no way，by all means，by no means，only too，all too，but too，in heaven in the world，on earth，under the sun等表示强调
His behavior was in every way perfect.
By all means take your son with you.
The news was only too true.
Where in heaven were you then?
Nobody under the sun would buy that car．
原句：I met him in the park this morning.
强调主语I：It was I who/that met him in the park this morning.
强调宾语him：It was him that I met in the park this morning.
强调地点状语in the park：It was in the park that I met him this morning.
强调时间状语this morning：It was this morning that I met him in the park.
强调句和定语从句完全相同：It is the book that I bought yesterday.
强调句：It is this book that I bought yesterday.
定语从句：This is the book that I bought yesterday.
强调句：It was on the island that they spend 10 years.
定语从句：It was the island that they spend 10 years on.
1. It’s not A that…; it’s B.
2. It’s not A but B that…
3. It’s B that…, not A.
1. It’s not what I say that defines me; it’s what I do.
2. It’s not what I say but what I do that defines me.
3. It’s what I do that defines me, not what I say.
How clever a boy he is ! = He is a clever boy.（a boy先提，再提clear，再加How）
How lovely the baby is ! = The baby is lovely.(只把lovely提前，加How)
2.What + noun + 主谓
What noise they are making! = They are making noise.
虚拟原型式 = 命令、要求、建议 = should+动词原形 = （should省略）+ 动词变形
虚拟过去式 = 现在-》过去，过去-》过去完成，将来-》过去将来，过去将来-》过去将来完成。
His father urged that he study medicine.
It is important that the hotel receptionist make sure that guests are registered correctly.
It is quite natural that the customs of all national minorities be respected.
It’s requested that all members be present at the meeting.
常规语法是 主 + 谓。主语在谓语前。
On the top of the hill stands an old temple.
Not only does he like football , but he is also fond of chess
Only in this way can the experts and professors make it clear.
What a nice girl she is ! = She is a VERY VERY VERY nice girl !!!
I have never seen such a pretty girl as she.
Never have I seen such a pretty girl as she.
2.So / Such
She is so kind, that she deserves all I respect.
So kind is she, that…
A boy stood there.
There stood a boy.
He who works hard is respectable.
Respectable is he who works hard.
5.as 取代 though
Though he is nice, I dislike him.
Nice as he is, I dislike him.
This is the house where I was born.
拆分：1. This is the house. 2. In this house I was born.
后行词就是：In this house
He is the boy with whom I will go to shanghai.
I am looking for a man who is rich, cute and well-educated.
The book which I am reading is written by Tomas Hardy.
修饰his，her，its，their，your one ‘s等等表示所属关系的词，用whose
He is the man whose car was stolen. = He is the man. His car was stolen.
You are the only one whose advice he might listen to.
This is the house where I was born. = This is the house. In this house I was born.
This is the house that belongs to my brother. = This house belongs to my brother.
He came at a time when we needed help. = At that time we needed help.
He came at a time which was just perfect. = The time was just perfect.
如果后行词是原因状语for this/that reason，就用why替换。
I knew the reason why he was late. = For this reason he was late.
The reason that he explained at the meeting was not acceptable. = He explained the reason at the meeting.
English is a “fixed-word-order” language where each phrase has a fixed position. = In this language each phrase has a fixed position.
Life isn’t some musical cartoon where you sing a little song, and your insipid dreams magically come true! = In that cartoon you sing a little song, and your insipid dreams magically come true!
There are occasions when one must yield.（任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。） = One must yield on those occasions.
eg. He is a student who studies hard. = He is a student. He study hard. = He is a student and he study hard.
eg. He is a teacher whom I respect. = He is a teacher. I respect him.
eg. He is a man with/for whom I enjoy working. = He is a man
whom(可省略) I enjoy working with/for. = He is a man, whom(前面有,就不能省略) I enjoy working with/for.
4.Before word ‘that’, there can not have comma or preposition.’That’ can replace who/whom/which.
eg. He is a man (that=whom) we all respect.
eg. He is a man (that=who) never lies.
4.Sometimes must use THAT! Before the “that” have a ‘est’ or a ‘first second’ or a ‘Who,Whom,Which’.
eg. He is the best student that I have ever taught.
eg. She is the most beautiful girl that I’v ever seen.
eg. That is the first thing that I’v do.
eg. Who’s the boy that(
who) is talking to Marry?
eg.What is the thing that(
which) you are using?
eg. This is my father, who is nice to me.
eg. Here comes Marry, who is nice to me.
eg. This is a student who studies hard.
eg. He is a boy who is handsome and kind.
eg. This is a book which I enjoy reading. = This is a book that I enjoy reading.
eg. This is a good book,(这里的逗号可有可无) which I bought yesterday.
He is a man who I think never lies. PS:插入语不影响关系代词的格
He is a man whom I think we should all respect.
He is a man who I think is nice.
He is a man whom I think to be nice. I think him to be nice.不定式做宾补
Mr. Mrs. Miss. Ms.
This is Mr. Wang; his daughter is my girlfriend.
This is Mr. Wang, and his daughter is my girlfriend.
This is Mr. Wang whose daughter is my girlfriend.
This is Mr. Wang; I love his daughter.
This is Mr. Wang, and I love his daughter.
This is Mr. Wang, whose daughter I love very much.
This is Mr. Wang, whose daughter I’m familiar with.
I just bought a book whose content is interesting.
I just bought a book, the content of which is interesting.
I just bought a book, of which the content is interesting.
I was born in Nanjing, which I met Marry.这样是错的,因为which不是做主语，所以要加介词，像下面这样。
I was born in Nanjing, in which I met Marry.
I was born in Nanjing, where I met Marry.
I went to the station, at which I met John.
I went to the station, where I met John.
I went to the top of hill, on which I met Peter.
I went to the top of hill, where I met Peter.
I was born on May 22 1984, on which it was raining.
I was born on May 22, 1984, when it was raining.
I was born in May, in which it was getting warmer.
I was born in May, when it was getting warmer.
I know the reason, which he resigned for.
I know the reason, why he resigned.
I know the reason he resigned.
I know why he resigned.
I don’t like the way, in which he talks.
This is wrong :
I don’t like the way ,how he talks.
I don’t like the way he talks.
I have more money than you have.
I have more money than you do.(知识点：两个动词，用do代替后面的)
I have more money than do you.(do和you也可以倒过来，后面再讲)
than前面是名词，则than叫做关系代词，但又和传统关系代词（who, whom, which）不同，than=than + the + money + which
I have more money than the money which you do.
I have more money than is needed.
I have more money than needed.(is 可以省略)
More friends than had been invited came.
than = than the friend who
Mary is more beautiful than Jane.
John is a person amiable
I have such a car as you do.
as = as the car which
I don’t like such people as lie.
I don’t like such a person as lies.
He is nice, but I don’t like him.
There is no one who does not like him.(who…not…可以用but代替)
There is no one but likes him.
There is no music which I am not fond of.
There is no music but I am fond of.
连接词有三类：that，if/wether，特殊疑问词：what, why, when, where, who/whom, whose, which, how
The defendant said that he didn’t do it. 宾
The most important thing is that we’re all right. 表
That he didn’t show up on time is strange. 主
It’s strange that he didn’t show up on time. 同样是主语从句。这样比上面那样表达更好。
I don’t know whether the stock will improve (or not). 宾
My concern is whether the stock will improve (or not).表
Whether the stock will improve (or not) doesn’t bother me.主
如 What you eat depends on who you are.
What you love to eat doesn’t bother me. 主
I don’t care what you love to eat. 宾
What matters most is what you love to eat. 主，表