特色

Coverage of English Grammar

词性和句子成分

[Article 冠 Determiner 限定词+ Noun 名 / Pronoun 代 ] | Verb | Adjective | Adverb
Preposition 介 | Conjunction 连 | Interjection(Exclamation) (略)| Numeral(略)✔️All✔️

Subject + Predicate 谓 / Link Verb 系 + Object 宾 + Complement 补 / Predicative 表
Attribute定 | Adverbial状Synonyms同位语

Non – Predicate Verb 非谓语动词  | 情态动词 | 系动词

Noun, verb, adjective and adverb change rules 名词、动词、形容词和副词的变化规则d✔️

疑问/连接 – 代词/副词、从属连词

时态

Tense 时态

句子

Single Sentence(Sentence Components 单独句子成分)✔️

Clause 从句 和 并列句✔️ | 名词性从句 主从/宾从/表从/同位语从 | 形容性从句 定从 | 副词性从句 状从 | 从句引导词省略

语气&语态

Passive Voice 被动语态

陈述(略)| Question 疑问(略) | Imperative sentence 祈使句✔️ |Subjunctive mood 虚拟语气 | Exclamatory sentence 感叹句 | Emphatic mood 强调语气 | Inversion Sentence 倒装句✔️

Speaking 口语

元音Vowels | 辅音Consonants | 重音Stress | 节奏

从句引导词省略

除了关系副词(where/why/when),关系代词(which/who/whose/that/whom)在先行词作定语从句中作宾语的时候可省略. 如:
This book (that/which) I bought have been lent to my classmate.这里”书”作宾语,所以关系代词可省略.
但若前面有介词,则不可省略,如:
The girl with whom I went shopping is my sister. (也可说: The girl who I went shopping with is my sister.)

在定语从句中,若引导词不做从句的主语就可以省略
在宾语从句中,引导词一般都可以省略
eg:this is the book (which)you want. which做宾语而非主语所以可以省.

 

定语从句:
关系词做宾语,通常可以省略。that和which在定语从句中做宾语是可以省略的。但是that在定语从句中做主语就不可以省略

状语从句:
that引导状语从句充当连词的时候,有时可以省略,比如在结果状语从句中that是可以省略的:the sound is so weak,that you can’t hear it. that就可以省略

宾语从句:
that引导宾语,通常可以省略。但是在介词短语后面的宾语从句中that不能省略
两个宾语从句连用时,省略第一个that不可以省略第二个that

 

that在引导名词性从句中充当连词本身没有任何意义时可以省略

that引导主语从句,同位语从句,表语从句的时候通常不可以省略

 

疑问代词、疑问副词、连接代词、连接副词、从属连词

疑问代词的本质还是个代词,只不过它代替一个不确定的、等待对方来确认的人或者物或者事儿。
疑问代词在引起从句时,就叫连接代词
who/whom, which, what, whose

疑问副词的本质是一个副词,用来咨询对方、等待对方去人谓语动作发生的原因、方式、时间、地点、频繁程度、或者用来咨询对方某个形容词的程度。
when, where, why, how
上述几个疑问副词在连接从句时,就叫连接副词,但如果连接的是并列句,则使用下面这几个连接副词
therefore, besides, otherwise, however, moreover, still, thus, meanwhile

简单的理解,可以认为疑问代词是期待对方告诉自己“什么执行了一个动作”,疑问副词是期待对方告诉自己“动作发生的样子”。

从属连词分两大类:
1、名词性从句里的从属连词
that (无词义,不做成分)
if,whether (表达是否的意义,但不做句子成分)
2、状从里的从属连词,before,after,since,if,because,though等。

[Speaking] Sentence Rhythm 句子节奏

 The Emphasis Pattern of English

English is a “stress-timed rhythm” langue but not a “syllables-timed rhythm” langue .

Content words  (emphasized)
  Structure words   (de-emphasized)
  nouns  (cat, book, Mary)
  main verbs  (make, run, study)
  adjectives   (good, happy, many)
  adverbs  (quickly, often, really)
  question words
       (who, what, when, where, how, why)
  demonstrative pronouns
       (this, that, these, those)
  pronouns     (he, she, it, they)
  prepositions   (in, on, of, at)
  articles   (a, an, the)
  “to-be” verbs   (am, is, are, was)
  “to-have” verbs   (has, have, had)
  conjunctions   (and, but, so, since)
  auxiliary verbs   (do, can, may, will)

IMPORTANT:Negative words and negative “to-be,” “to-have,” and  auxiliary verbs need to be stressed.      ( e.g., no,  never,  isn’t,  haven’t,  can’t,   don’t,  won’t)

 

Sentens Focus

Any word in English can be a focus in a message. You can focus on a noun, a verb, an adjective, an adverb, a preposition, or an auxiliary.

The speaker uses focus to emphasize a certain part of his/her message. The use of focus can indicate the speaker’s intended meaning of a message. The focused word needs to be stressed, so it is louder, longer, and higher pitched than other words in a message.

Pausing and Thought Groups

Do you know where to pause in sentences to form thought groups?

We usually pause
1. before punctuation marks ( , . ; : ? ! )
2. before conjunctions (and, or, but, which, that, since…)
3. between grammatical units such as phrases, clauses, and sentences.

eg:Once upon a starless midnight / there was an owl / who sat on the branch of an oak tree./Two ground moles / tried to slip by, / unnoticed. / “You!” / said the owl. /”Who?” / they quavered, / in fear and astonishment, / for they could not believe /it was possible / for anyone to see them / in that thick darkness./

Grammar:同位语

概念

一个名词(或其它形式)对另一个名词或代词进行解释或补充说明,这个名词(或其它形式)就是同位语。

举例

1.指代相同,用“逗号,”分割
Mr. Smith, our new teacher, is very kind to us.
Yesterday I met Tom, a friend of my brothers’.

2.某些情况,也不需要“逗号,”
He told me that his brother John was a world-famous doctor.

3.指代一部分,并不完全相同
We Chinese people are brave and hard-working.
He is interested in sports, especially ball games.sports和ball games是同位语

Grammar:祈使句

定义

祈使句(Imperative Sentence)是英语中的一个句式,也是用于表达命令、请求、劝告、警告、禁止等的句子。祈使句最常用于表达命令,因此在学校文法中也常称为命令句。

祈使句无主语 ,主语you常省去;
动词原形当谓语,Don’t句首变否定;
朗读应当用降调,句末常标感叹号。

结构

1.be+形容词/名词(Be形)
Be quiet for a moment.
2.实义动词原形+其他成分(Do形)
Make your own rules.
3.let+宾语+动词原形+其他(Let形)
Let’s run to the police station on fourth street.
Let’s say anything about it.

变否定

Do、Be、Let形都可以加Don’t变否定
Let还可以后面加not,例如:Don’t let him go. / Let him not go. 都是对的
某些情况可以加Never或者No,如Never judge a person by looks. No SMOKING!

按人称分

第一人称
Let me try again.
Let’s take a taxi.
第二人称(通常省略you)
Stop talking please.
Do not feed the animals.
第三人称
Let bygones be bygones.
Let the boys clear up this mess.

Grammar:强调语气

概念分类

1.词法强调:用某些特定单词、词组强调。
2.结构与句法强调:比较级、最高级、as…as结构、not so…as结构、宾语前置、倒装、双重否定结构、感叹句、强调句式等等表达强调。
3.强调句的本质是一种特殊的句式,而非主从句。

词法强调

1.用形容词very,single等表示强调
At the very moment,the telephone rang.

2.用反身代词表示强调
I myself will see her off at the station.
You can do it well yourself.

3.用助词do表示强调
He does speak(演讲) well!
He did come but soon went back.

4.用短语in every way,in no way,by all means,by no means,only too,all too,but too,in heaven in the world,on earth,under the sun等表示强调
His behavior was in every way perfect.
By all means take your son with you.
The news was only too true.
Where in heaven were you then?
Nobody under the sun would buy that car.

句法强调

原句:I met him in the park this morning.
强调主语I:It was I who/that met him in the park this morning.
强调宾语him:It was him that I met in the park this morning.
强调地点状语in the park:It was in the park that I met him this morning.
强调时间状语this morning:It was this morning that I met him in the park.

强调句与定语从句辨析

强调句和定语从句完全相同:It is the book that I bought yesterday.

强调句:It is this book that I bought yesterday.
定语从句:This is the book that I bought yesterday.

强调句:It was on the island that they spend 10 years.
定语从句:It was the island that they spend 10 years on.

强调句变体

强调句还有几种常见的变体,表达“是XXX,怎么样,而不是XXX”,结构通常如下:
1. It’s not A that…; it’s B.
2. It’s not A but B that…
3. It’s B that…, not A.

eg.
1. It’s not what I say that defines me; it’s what I do.
2. It’s not what I say but what I do that defines me.
3. It’s what I do that defines me, not what I say.

感叹句

概念

由What , How引导
How强调形容词,What强调名词,但也不是绝对。

感叹句结构

1.How+形容词+ an/an+名词+主谓
How clever a boy he is ! = He is a clever boy.(a boy先提,再提clear,再加How)
How lovely the baby is ! = The baby is lovely.(只把lovely提前,加How)

2.What + noun + 主谓
What noise they are making! = They are making noise.

3.What + adjective+noun+主谓
What a wise old man he is! = He is a wise old man.
What nice pictures they are!
What cold weather it is!
4.在3的情况口语中感叹句经常省略后面的主谓
What a wise old man!

Grammar:虚拟语气

概述

作用:区分主观与客观
动词变化:虚拟原型/虚拟过去式

虚拟原型式 = 命令、要求、建议 = should+动词原形 = (should省略)+ 动词变形
虚拟过去式 = 现在-》过去,过去-》过去完成,将来-》过去将来,过去将来-》过去将来完成。
把虚拟原型式排除之后,可以简单地认为虚拟语气只包含虚拟过去式这一种形式。

常用虚拟原型式的词

1.动词ask,advice,command,demand,insist,order,require,recommend,suggest,urge等相关的宾语从句。
His father urged that he study medicine.

2.形容词advisable,appropriate,crucial,nature,desirable,essential,important,imperative,necessary,urgent,unusual,vital,requested,decided等相关的主语从句。

It is important that the hotel receptionist make sure that guests are registered correctly.
It is quite natural that the customs of all national minorities be respected.
It’s requested that all members be present at the meeting.

 

倒装句

概念

常规语法是 主 + 谓。主语在谓语前。

倒装就是谓语在主语前。

当谓语是一个动词时,把这个动词放到主语前面,就叫全部倒装,通常只用于一般现在和一般过去时(可能是因为这俩没有助动词吧)。如:
On the top of the hill stands an old temple.

当谓语里有助动词,且只把助动词提前,实意动词依然在主语后,就叫部分倒装(半倒装)。如:
Not only does he like football , but he is also fond of chess
Only in this way can the experts and professors make it clear.

感叹句,疑问句什么的,其本质也是倒装句:
What a nice girl she is ! = She is a VERY VERY VERY nice girl !!!

更多

1.否定倒装句

I have never seen such a pretty girl as she.

Never have I seen such a pretty girl as she.

2.So / Such

She is so kind, that she deserves all I respect.

So kind is she, that…

3.地点副词

A boy stood there.

There stood a boy.

4.完全倒装句

He who works hard is respectable.

Respectable is he who works hard.

5.as 取代 though

Though he is nice, I dislike him.

Nice as he is, I dislike him.

定语从句 – 形容词性

概述

形容词性,修饰名词

和状语从句一样,把疑问句的助动词还原。

后行词,就是把主语拆分成两部分,后面那部分的开头词汇。如:
This is the house where I was born.
拆分:1. This is the house. 2. In this house I was born.
后行词就是:In this house

位置

常规位置是在名词之前。定语从句的本质是从句作后置定语。(这不矛盾吗?)

who/whom

修饰人就用who/that。如果是宾格,也可以用“whom”,当然也能用who。但如果把介词提前,就必须用whom不能用who了。

He is the boy with whom I will go to shanghai.
I am looking for a man who is rich, cute and well-educated.

which/that

修饰事或者物就用which/that

The book which I am reading is written by Tomas Hardy.

Whose

修饰his,her,its,their,your one ‘s等等表示所属关系的词,用whose

He is the man whose car was stolen. = He is the man. His car was stolen.
You are the only one whose advice he might listen to.

Where

修饰地点

This is the house where I was born. = This is the house. In this house I was born.
This is the house that belongs to my brother. = This house belongs to my brother.
所以第二句用that,第一句用where

When

如果后行词是时间状语(通常是介词+表时间名词),就用when替换。

He came at a time when we needed help. = At that time we needed help.
He came at a time which was just perfect. = The time was just perfect.

Why

如果后行词是原因状语for this/that reason,就用why替换。

I knew the reason why he was late. = For this reason he was late.
The reason that he explained at the meeting was not acceptable. = He explained the reason at the meeting.

抽象时间地点,用where和when

Where可以替代抽象的地点状语、when可以代替抽象的时间状语,引导定语从句

English is a “fixed-word-order” language where each phrase has a fixed position. = In this language each phrase has a fixed position.
Life isn’t some musical cartoon where you sing a little song, and your insipid dreams magically come true! = In that cartoon you sing a little song, and your insipid dreams magically come true!
There are occasions when one must yield.(任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。) = One must yield on those occasions.

 


以下是之前总结的,要和上面合并

3.Who / Whom / Which(关系代词)

形容词从句,也就是句子变成了形容词。

形容词从句都是关系代词引导的?

1.关系代词前面一定要有先行词(先行词就是被关系代词指代的名词)。

2.关系代词在所引导的形容词从句中必须要当主语或是宾语。

eg. He is a student who studies hard. = He is a student. He study hard. = He is a student and he study hard.

eg. He is a teacher whom I respect. = He is a teacher. I respect him.

3.否则,关系代词前面一定有介词。

eg. He is a man with/for whom I enjoy working. = He is a man whom(可省略) I enjoy working with/for. = He is a man, whom(前面有,就不能省略) I enjoy working with/for.

4.Before word ‘that’, there can not have comma or preposition.’That’ can replace who/whom/which.

eg. He is a man (that=whom) we all respect.

eg. He is a man (that=who) never lies.

4.Sometimes must use THAT! Before the “that” have a ‘est’ or a ‘first second’ or  a ‘Who,Whom,Which’.

eg. He is the best student that I have ever taught.

eg. She is the most beautiful girl that I’v ever seen.

eg. That is the first thing that I’v do.

eg. Who’s the boy that(who) is talking to Marry?

eg.What is the thing that(which) you are using?

 

有[,]叫做非限定修饰,前面说的东西应该是专有名词,有特殊性。

eg. This is my father, who is nice to me.

eg. Here comes Marry, who is nice to me.

没有[,]叫做限定修饰

eg. This is a student who studies hard.

eg. He is a boy who is handsome and kind.

eg. This is a book which I enjoy reading. = This is a book that I enjoy reading.

eg. This is a good book,(这里的逗号可有可无) which I bought yesterday.

 

插入语:

He is a man who I think never lies. PS:插入语不影响关系代词的格

He is a man whom I think we should all respect.

He is a man who I think is nice.

He is a man whom I think to be nice. I think him to be nice.不定式做宾补

Whose(任何物都用whose)关系代词所有格:

可以引导形容词从句,用来连接两个句子

Mr. Mrs. Miss. Ms.

This is Mr. Wang; his daughter is my girlfriend.

This is Mr. Wang, and his daughter is my girlfriend.

This is Mr. Wang whose daughter is my girlfriend.

这三个都是对的。

This is Mr. Wang; I love his daughter.

This is Mr. Wang, and I love his daughter.

This is Mr. Wang, whose daughter I love very much.

This is Mr. Wang, whose daughter I’m familiar with.

以上都是对的

I just bought a book whose content is interesting.

I just bought a book, the content of which is interesting.

I just bought a book, of which the content is interesting.

虽然上面都是对的,但最好的还是用whose.

关系副词where when why how.

这四个都是介词+关系代词变过来的

–Where–

I was born in Nanjing, which I met Marry.这样是错的,因为which不是做主语,所以要加介词,像下面这样。

I was born in Nanjing, in which I met Marry.

I was born in Nanjing, where I met Marry.

I went to the station, at which I met John.

I went to the station, where I met John.

I went to the top of hill, on which I met Peter.

I went to the top of hill, where I met Peter.

–when–

I was born on May 22 1984, on which it was raining.

I was born on May 22, 1984, when it was raining.

I was born in May, in which it was getting warmer.

I was born in May, when it was getting warmer.

–why–

why和the reason并存,可以同时出现

I know the reason, which he resigned for.

I know the reason, why he resigned.

I know the reason he resigned.

I know why he resigned.

以上都对,基本上why最简单,只由the reason引出

–how–

how和the way并存,但不可以同时出现

I don’t like the way, in which he talks.

This is wrong : I don’t like the way ,how he talks.

I don’t like the way he talks.

 

准关系代词 than, as

than前面是名词

I have more money than you have.

I have more money than you do.(知识点:两个动词,用do代替后面的)

I have more money than do you.(do和you也可以倒过来,后面再讲)

than前面是名词,则than叫做关系代词,但又和传统关系代词(who, whom, which)不同,than=than + the + money + which

I have more money than the money which you do.

I have more money than is needed.

I have more money than needed.(is 可以省略)

More friends than had been invited came.

than = than the friend who

than前面不是名词,则than是连词

Mary is more beautiful than Jane.

John is a person amiable

AS

I have such a car as you do.

as = as the car which

I don’t like such people as lie.

I don’t like such a person as lies.

He is nice, but I don’t like him.

There is no one who does not like him.(who…not…可以用but代替)

There is no one but likes him.

There is no music which I am not fond of.

There is no music but I am fond of.